The Extent, Nature, and Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence Beth Chaney Texas A&M University.
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The Extent, Nature, and Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence Beth Chaney Texas A&M University
Defining Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) Actual or threatened physical or sexual violence or psychological and emotional abuse directed toward a spouse, ex-spouse, current or former boyfriend or girlfriend, or current or former dating partner (Saltzman, et al. 1999)
Common Types of IPV Rape (7.7%) Physical Assault (24.8%) Stalking (4.8%)
Occurrence Approximately 1.5 million women and 834,700 men are raped and/or physically assaulted by an intimate partner each year Nearly two-thirds of women who reported being raped, physically assaulted, or stalked since age 18 were victimized by a current or former husband, cohabiting partner, boyfriend, or date
Occurrence Among women who are physically assaulted or raped by an intimate partner, one in three is injured. As many as 324,000 women each year experience IPV during their pregnancy Firearms were the major weapon type used in intimate partner homicides from 1981 to 1998
Consequences Intimate partner violence is associated with both short- and long-term problems Female Victims versus Male Victims
Consequences Each year, thousands of American children witness IPV within their families. Long-term problems associated with witnessing IPV The health care costs of intimate partner rape, physical assault, and stalking exceed $5.8 billion each year, nearly $4.1 billion of which is for direct medical and mental health care services
Groups at Risk More women than men experience intimate partner violence. National Violence Against Women Survey Women are more likely than men to be murdered in the context of intimate partner violence. Women ages 20 to 29 years are at greatest risk of being killed by an intimate partner
Groups at Risk Nearly one-third of African American women experience IPV in their lifetimes compared with one- fourth of white women American Indian/Alaska Native women and men were most likely to report IPV, and Asian/Pacific Islander women and men were least likely to report IPV. Homosexual Couples???
Risk Factors Alcohol use is frequently associated with violence between intimate partners. One study recently found that male partners’ unemployment and drug or alcohol use were associated with increased risk for physical, sexual, and/or emotional abuse
Risk Factors Witnessing IPV as a child or adolescent, or experiencing violence from caregivers as a child, increases one’s risk of both perpetrating IPV and becoming a victim of IPV Men who are physically violent towards their partners are also likely to be sexually violent towards their partners and are likely to use violence towards children
Risk Factors Perpetrators of IPV may lack some social skills, such as lack of communication skills, particularly in the context of problematic situations with their intimate partners Research has determined that violent husbands report more anger and hostility toward women when compared with nonviolent husbands
Risk Factors A high proportion of IPV perpetrators report more depression, lower self-esteem, and more aggression than non-violent intimate partners. Personality disorders
When Does IPV Occur? Only 6.3% of rape victims and 4.2% of physical assault victims report that their victimization started after the relationship ended.
Frequency and Duration of IPV Much of IPV is chronic in nature Approximately half (51.2%) of all women raped and 65.5% of all the women physically assaulted say they were victimized multiple times by the same partner. Female rape victims average 4.5 rapes by the same partner Female physical assault victims average 6.9 assaults by the same partner
Reporting IPV Only 17.2 % of the women raped by an intimate partner said their most recent rape was reported to the police. Reasons for Not Reporting: Retaliation Thinking it will be a one-time event Ashamed/Keep Private Think police will not do anything
Safety Tips If you are the victim of intimate partner violence, do not blame yourself. Talk with people you trust and seek services. Contact your local battered women’s shelter or the National Domestic Violence Hotline at 800-799- SAFE (7233), 800-787-3224 TDD, or www.ndvh.org/www.ndvh.org/ If you are or think you may become a perpetrator of intimate partner violence contact the National Domestic Violence Hotline at 800-799-SAFE (7233), 800-787- 3224 (TDD), or www.ndvh.org/www.ndvh.org/
Safety Tips Recognize early warning signs for physical violence such as a partner's extreme jealousy, controlling behavior, verbal threats, history of violent tendencies or abusing others, and verbal or emotional abuse. Know what services are available for victims and perpetrators of intimate partner violence and their children in case you or a friend should need help.
Safety Tips Learn more about intimate partner violence. Information is available in libraries, from local and national domestic violence organizations, and through the Internet.
Conclusion Support increased access to services for victims and perpetrators of intimate partner violence as well as for their children. Coordinate community initiatives to strengthen safety networks for women who experience violence. Increase public awareness to help decrease and prevent intimate partner violence.
Conclusion Violence and emotionally abusive and controlling behavior in intimate relationships are interrelated. IPV is and should be treated as a significant social problem.