What is domestic abuse? Any incident of threatening behaviour, violence or abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial or emotional) between adults, aged 18 or over, who are or who have been intimate partners or family members regardless of gender or sexuality. Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO, 2004)
How much of a problem is domestic abuse? In 2009/10 domestic violence accounted for 14% of violent crime Women were victims in 77% of incidents 2 women are killed every week by a male partner or former partner 40% of all female homicide victims are killed by their current or ex-partner, compared with 5% male victims
Serious Cases use Public Resources Audit Commission (2011) Typical cost of one case over one year £20,000
Domestic abuse-related offences Harassment Stalking Honour-Based Violence Forced marriage Missing from home Rape & sexual offences Assault Criminal damage Threats to kill False imprisonment
Current Government Policy: Call to End Violence against Women and Girls Home Office, 2010 The strategic vision is for a society in which no woman or girl has to live in fear of violence. United Nations (UN) Declaration (1993): ‘ Any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life’.
BBC News: Salford murder victim Clare Wood 'was not protected‘ …A woman who was strangled and set on fire by a violent and obsessive ex-boyfriend was not given enough police protection, an inquest has heard. Clare Wood had made several complaints to police about George Appleton before her death in Salford in 2009. Appleton, who had a history of violence against women, was still able to get into her home and kill her, Bolton Coroner's Court was told…. The Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC) concluded Miss Wood, 36, had been let down by "individual and systemic" failures by Greater Manchester Police (GMP).
The Independent Police Complaints Committee (IPCC) and domestic abuse Claire Woods and Katie Boardman “a catalogue of mistakes and failings by GMP” Officers underestimated the threat posed The risk was not recognised for 3 months Failures in completion of files Officers were absent – no alternative arrangements Full risk assessment not completed Failure to act by specialist Domestic Violence Unit Lack of response to 999 calls Flaws in intelligence systems
PhD Business & Management at Manchester Business School How do police and partners identify and manage the risk of violence to those who seek police assistance, and where are the areas for improvement? Leadership response Partnership arrangements may not be sufficient to identify and manage the risk of violence Failings
Nature of the problem A typology of problems and authority Grint (2005) Critical A crisis No uncertainty about action Leader provides answers Command Tame Individual Defined solution Less uncertainty Management Wicked Complex Collective solution Leader asks questions High uncertainty Leadership
Frontline Leadership Framework Vinzant and Crothers (1998) Discretionlegitimacy Leadership power Wicked problems are layered and unmanageable. They demand increasing amounts of discretion. Complex decision- making. Use of power must be legitimate. External standards Service standards Public norms and values
New Public Leadership: A form of collective leadership in which public bodies and agencies collaborate in achieving a shared vision based on shared aims and values and distribute this through each organisation in a colleagiate way which seeks to promote, influence and deliver improved public value as evidenced through sustained social, environmental and economic well-being within a complex and changing context. Brookes and Grint (2010) and Brookes (2011)
Critical Components of Public Leadership Shared Leadership: Collaboration between public bodies, agencies and the public Development of shared vision based on shared values and aims Discourage ‘organisational egos’ Focus on public values
Large Data Set 60,000 incidents of domestic abuse reported every year to GMP – recorded on incident information reports Risk assessments conducted on every incident Crime reports created when there are criminal offences Also Interviews with senior leaders Interviews and questionnaire to police officers Interviews with partner agencies Interviews with victims Leadership inventory
The Domestic Abuse, Stalking, Harassment, and Honour-Based Violence Model (DASH, 2008) risk assessment 27 questions determine whether risk is standard, medium or high. High risk factors include separation, conflict over child contact, stalking & harassment, pregnancy or new baby, child abuse, increase in frequency or escalation of violence/abuse, controlling and jealous behaviour, threats to kill, attempt to strangle/suffocate/drown, sexual abuse, suicide attempts. Drugs, alcohol, mental health problems