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Copyright © 2012 Pearson Canada Inc. 1 Chapter 14 Sexual and Homicidal Offenders 14-1
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Canada Inc. 2 Learning Objectives Rates of sexual offending Typologies of rapists and child molesters Theories of sexual aggression Treatment of sex offenders Rates of homicide Different types of homicide Theories of homicidal aggression Treatment of violent offenders 14-2
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Canada Inc. 3 Definition of Sexual Assault Any nonconsensual sexual act by either a male or female person to either a male or female person, regardless of the relationship between the people involved Three levels: –Simple sexual assault –Sexual assault with a weapon or causing bodily harm –Aggravated sexual assault 14-3
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Canada Inc. 4 Extent of Sexual Offending 20 992 sexual assaults in 2008 (Statistics Canada, 2009) Inaccurate official estimates because majority of victims do not report crime Victimization surveys indicate high rates of victimization 14-4
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Canada Inc. 5 Effects of Rape Rape trauma syndrome (Burgess & Holmstrom, 1974) –Acute phase: Heightened levels of fear, anxiety, and depression –Long-term phase: Development of phobias, sexual problems, etc. Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 14-5
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Canada Inc. 6 Rape Myths Sexual assault is not a common problem Sexual assault is most often committed by strangers Women “ask for it” by the way they dress Avoid being alone in dark, deserted places Women derive pleasure from being a victim Women lie about sexual assault 14-6
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Canada Inc. 7 Classification Sexual Offenders Voyeurs Exhibitionists Rapists Pedophiles Child Molesters –Intra-familial (incest offender) –Extra-familial 14-7
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Canada Inc. 8 Rapist Typologies MTC:R3 The Revised Rapist Typology, Version 3 (MTC:R3; Knight & Prentky, 1990) –Opportunistic –Pervasively angry –Sexual –Sadistic –Vindictive 14-8
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Canada Inc. 9 Rapist Typologies Groth (1979) Three main types of rapists proposed by Groth (1979): –Anger rapist (most common) –Power rapist –Sadistic rapist (least common) 14-9
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Canada Inc. 10 Child Molester Typologies Groth et al. (1982): –Fixated child molesters –Regressed child molesters Subdivided into 2 types based on coercion: –Sex-pressure –Sex-force: Exploitative type and sadistic type 14-10
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Canada Inc. 11 Adolescent Sex Offenders Adolescents commit: –20% of rapes –Between 30-50% of child sexual abuse –History of sexual abuse history is common –Victims tend to be young females (<9 years old) 14-11
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Canada Inc. 12 Female Sex Offenders Only 2-5% of incarcerated sex offenders are female Sexual abuse by females underestimated Four types proposed by Atkinson (1996): –Teacher/lover –Male-coerced –Male-accompanied –Predisposed 14-12
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Canada Inc. 13 Theories of Sexual Aggression Finkelhor (1984) proposed four pre- conditions for child molestation to occur: –Offender must be motivated –Lack of internal inhibitions –Overcome external inhibitors –Overcome child’s resistance 14-13
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Canada Inc. 14 More Theories of Sexual Aggression Marshall and Barbaree (1990) –Integrated model of sexual aggression Ward and Siegert (2002) –Pathway model of sexual abuse Quinsey and Lalumiere (1995) –Evolutionary theory of sexual offending 14-14
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Canada Inc. 15 Treatment of Sexual Offenders Most treatment programs focus on: –Recognizing denial, minimizations, and cognitive distortions –Empathy training –Enhancing social skills –Treating substance abuse problems –Modifying deviant sexual interests –Relapse prevention 14-15
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Canada Inc. 16 Relapse Prevention Consists of two main parts: –Offenders list emotional and situational risk factors that lead to fantasizing or offending (e.g., feeling lonely) –Offenders develop plans to deal more appropriately with problems and avoid or cope with high risk situations 14-16
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Canada Inc. 17 Effectiveness of Treatment with Sex Offenders Lack of consensus about whether treatment is effective Challenges for researchers: –Conducting controlled studies –Relatively low base rate of sexual recidivism (i.e., researchers have to wait many years to see if treatment works) 14-17
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Canada Inc. 18 Meta-Analyses of Sex Offender Treatment Hanson et al. (2002) showed: –Sexual recidivism rates lower for treated offenders (both adolescent and adult) –Both institutional and community treatment effective –Cognitive-behavioral treatment associated with strongest effects 14-18
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Canada Inc. 19 Definition of Homicidal Offences Four different types of homicides: –First-degree murder (planned and deliberate) –Second-degree murder –Manslaughter (unintentional; in the heat of passion) –Infanticide (killing of a baby) 14-19
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Canada Inc. 20 Extent of Homicidal Offences Homicide rate peaked in the 1970s and declined from 1975 to 2003 Homicide rate increased in 2004 and 2005, but is generally decreasing again Gang- and gun-related homicides are increasing, but the rate of female victims is decreasing Homicide more likely in Western provinces 14-20
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Canada Inc. 21 Bimodal Classification of Homicide Reactive (affective) –Impulsive; unplanned; response to perceived provocation –Victims are most often relatives Instrumental (predatory) –Proactive; premeditated; motivated by a goal –Victims are most often strangers 14-21
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Canada Inc. 22 Types of Homicide: Filicide Filicide: Killing of children by parents –Neonaticide –Infanticide 3 types of maternal filicide (Stanton & Simpson, 2002): –Infanticide –Battering mothers –Mental illness 14-22
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Canada Inc. 23 Other Types of Homicide Familicide: Spouse or children killed –Perpetrator most often male Parricide: Killing of parents –Youth perpetrator often abused Spousal Killers (uxoricide/mariticide) –Husbands more likely to kill their wives than wives are to kill husbands 14-23
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Canada Inc. 24 Multiple Murder Serial murder: Minimum of three victims; cooling off period between unrelated killings; killings usually committed in different locations Mass murder: Minimum of three victims; no cooling off period between killings committed at same location 14-24
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Canada Inc. 25 Characteristics of Serial Murderers Most serial murderers are male Most serial murderers do not operate with an accomplice Most serial murderers are Caucasian Victims of serial murderers are usually young females with no relation to the murderer 14-25
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Canada Inc. 26 Male Versus Female Serial Murderers According to Hickey (2006): –Males more likely to have criminal history –Males less likely to work with accomplice –Males use firearms, females use poison –Males more likely to kill for sexual gratification; women kill for money –Males more likely to kill strangers –Males more geographically mobile 14-26
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Canada Inc. 27 Typologies of Serial Murder Holmes and Holmes (1998) typology based on victim and method of murder: –Visionary serial murderer –Mission-oriented serial murderer –Hedonistic serial murderer –Power/control serial murderer Criticized for lacking empirical support (Canter & Wentink, 2004) 14-27
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Canada Inc. 28 Theories of Homicidal Aggression Akers (1973) –Social learning theory Daly and Wilson (1988) –Evolutionary theory Anderson and Bushman (2002) –The General Aggression Model (GAM) 14-28
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Canada Inc. 29 Treatment of Homicidal Offenders Treatment of homicidal offenders has not received the same attention as treatment for sexual offenders No typical program, but common treatment targets include: anger management, self- control (i.e., impulsivity), problem solving, interpersonal skills, and social attitudes (e.g., beliefs supporting violence) 14-29
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Canada Inc. 30 Effectiveness of Treatment with Violent Offenders Meta-analytic research suggests that treatment programs for violent (non-sexual offenders) can be effective (Joliffe & Farrington, 2007) –Recidivism rates lower for treated offenders –Treatment effect varied depending on treatment target and other factors (e.g., length of treatment session) 14-30
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