Presentation on theme: "Teaching Grammar Prof. A.karim Benlaayouni Ibn Zohr Univ."— Presentation transcript:
1 Teaching Grammar Prof. A.karim Benlaayouni Ibn Zohr Univ. Department of Anglo-Saxon StudiesAgadir
2 What is grammar?grammar is "a living resource that gives us the ability to communicate our ideas and feelings and to understand what other people say or write to us"A description of the structure of a language and the way in which linguistic units (words and phrases…) are combined to produce sentences in that language.
3 Grammar describes the speaker’s knowledge of the language. Grammar looks at the language in relation to how it is structured in the speaker’s mind, and which principles and parameters are available to the speaker when producing the language
4 Steps for Learners In order to master the grammar successfully… Learners must:1. notice the item2. begin to understand it in terms of form, meaning and use3. try it out within a controlled environment,so that they can make mistakes and receive feedback4. need opportunities to use the new language in different situations.
5 Deductive LearningAn approach in which learners are taught rules and given specific information about a language. Then they apply them when using the language(Grammar translation method & audio-lingual method)Rules Teacher centered approachPractice
6 Inductive Learning Practice An approach in which learners are not taught rules directly, but are left to discover - or induce - rules from their experience of using the languageEmphasis on the use of language rather than presentation of information about the language(direct method & communicative approach…)Practice learner centered approachRules
7 Stages of a lesson Presentation Creation of need Drilling Explanation Deductive LessonInductive LessonPresentationDrillingExplanationCheckingDrilling againExploitationCreation of needIntroductionCheckingDrillingExploiting
8 Teaching techniques Examples / Tables and charts Memorizing / visual aidsTape recorders / Visual grammarChoral repetition / Gap filling/ Role playinglanguage labs
9 Drilling….A technique commonly used in language teaching based on guided repetition or practice.A drill which practices some aspects of grammar or sentence formation is often known as “pattern practice”
10 Types of drills Substitution drill Expansion Restatement Completion Inflections: e.g., I bought the ticket. – I bought two tickets.Replacement: e.g., I bought the candy. –She bought the candy.ExpansionI know him. (hardly) – I hardly know him.RestatementAsk her how old she is.- How old are you?CompletionI’ll go my way and you go….- I’ll go my way and you go yours.
11 Transformation Restoration He knows my address. Negative…He doesn’t know my address.Question…Does he know my address?Past…He used to know my address.Restorationstudents/waiting/bus…Students are waiting for the bus.
12 Appropriate (level & structure) A good drill…?RealisticMeaningfulConsistentVariedClearAppropriate (level & structure)pace (fast / slow)
13 Students’ errors Over-generalization: Correction techniques: Language learners often produce errors which are extensions of general rules to items not covered by the rules,e.g. 'I comed home'.Correction techniques:Self correctionPeer correctionTeacher correction