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The Audiolingual Method

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Presentation on theme: "The Audiolingual Method"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Audiolingual Method
From “Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching” By J.C. Richards and T.S. Rodgers.

2 Background Before World War II, there were three methods:
A modified Direct Method Approach A Reading Approach. A Reading-Oral Approach.

3 Problems with these three methods:
They lacked standardization of vocabulary and grammar. No one could agree what was important to teach for beginning, intermediate or advanced learners. They basically, lacked “STRUCTURE”

4 World War II Changed everything...

5 The Army Specialized Training Program
The Army Specialized Training Program (ASTP) was started in 1942. Native speakers acted as an informant of the language and as a linguist, as in the Direct Method. Students and informants gradually learned a language, ten hours a day for six days a week.

6 The ASTP continued for two years and by the 1950s, as a result of many factors Audiolingualism became a standardized way of teaching a language.

7 Sputnik 1 – The First Russian Satellite (1957)

8 It changed everything again:
It made the U.S. Government realize the need for new and more intensive foreign language teaching methodology. The National Defence Education Act (1958) provided money for training of teachers, the development of teaching materials and for the study and analysis of modern languages.

9 The term “Audiolingualism” was coined by Professor Nelson Brooks (1964). In the 1960’s, Audiolingualism began to lose its popularity, but this method is still used today.

10 Approach Theory of Language: Structuralism
Structural linguistics influenced Audiolingualism. Elements in a language are linearly produced in a rule-governed way. Linguistic levels are pyramidally structured. Phonology Morphology Phrases Sentences

11 Approach Theory of Learning: Behaviourism
Behavioural psychology influenced Audiolingualism. Behaviourists believe that humans are organisms capable of learning many behaviours. It depends on three elements: Stimulus: Bring out behaviour. Response: Triggered by stimulus. Reinforcement: Marks the response as being appropriate or not and encourages repetition which is vital in the learning process.

12 Behaviourism Learning Behaviour Organism Behaviour Stimulus Response
Reinforcement Learner. Language behaviour. Content. Learner’s response. Reaction intrinsic/extrinsic approval.

13 Approach - Conclusions
Foreign language learning is a process of mechanical habit formation. Language skills are learned more effectively if they are learned in spoken form (drills) rather than written form. Language must be learned in context of the linguistics and culture.

14 Design - Objectives Short-term Objectives Long-term Objectives
Listening comprehension. Accurate pronunciation. Recognition of speech symbols as graphic signs. The ability to reproduce these symbols in writing. Language as the native speaker uses it.

15 Design – The Syllabus Based on a linguistic or structure-based approach to language teaching. Built on: Step by step linguistic syllabus, which contains: Phonology. Morphology. Syntax. Lexical syllabus of basic vocabulary.

16 Design – Types of learning and teaching activities.
Dialogues Drills Distinctive feature of this method. Expansion. Contraction. Repetition. Transformation. Inflection. Replacement. Integration. Restatement. Rejoinder. Completion. Restoration. Transposition. Contextualize key structures. Illustrate situations. Used for repetition and memorization.

17 Design - Roles Learner roles: Teacher roles:
The role of instructional materials: They can be directed by skilled training techniques. Central and active. Teacher-oriented. Model of the target language. External displays. Tape recorders, a language laboratory and audiovisual equipment are important. Controls the process of learning. Reactive role. They do not initiate interaction. Monitors and controls the learner’s performance.

18 Procedure Extensive oral instruction is required where the target language is used. Typical procedures: Model dialogue. Repeat. Correction of mistakes. Memorize. Dialogues are adapted and then acted out. Key structures are selected and used for pattern drills. Textbooks. Follow-up reading, writing or vocabulary activities may be introduced. Follow-up activities in a language laboratory.

19 The decline of Audiolingualism
It was examined in many ways: Theoretical foundations were considered weak in both language theory and learning theory. Practitioners discovered that the practical results did not meet expectations. Students were not able to transfer skills to real communication outside the classroom. Many students found the classes boring and unsatisfying.

20 Noam Chomsky He rejected this approach.
His theory of transformational grammar said that language is creative and generated, not a habit. Language derives from innate aspects of the mind and from how humans process experience through language.

21 Final Conclusion... Audiolingualism holds that language learning is like other forms of learning. That is the reason why, it stresses the mechanistic aspects of language learning and language use.

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