Presentation on theme: "Nutrition Objective: 1. Analyze the function of nutrients 2. Analyze dietary guidelines 3. Identify characteristics and treatment of common eating disorders."— Presentation transcript:
Nutrition Objective: 1. Analyze the function of nutrients 2. Analyze dietary guidelines 3. Identify characteristics and treatment of common eating disorders.
Nutrients Are: Water Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Minerals Vitamins Fiber
Water Essential nutrient 55-65% body weight Body loses water through evaporation, excretion, and respiration The only nutrient we sense a need for---- Thirst
Carbohydrates Monosaccharide = simple sugar = glucose Disaccharide = double sugar Polysaccharides = complex sugar Main source of energy for the body CALORIE – unit that measures the amount of energy contained within the chemical bonds of different foods
Carbohydrate cont. Empty calories – found in foods like candy, cake, cookies that have no nutritional value Complex carbohydrates containing starch and cellulose are healthier – they supply ROUGHAGE – the indigestible part of food.
Lipids Source of energy – twice as many calories as the same amount of carbohydrate or protein Stored fat provides energy during emergencies Body fat cushions internal organs Body fat insulates against the cold Fat carry fat-soluble vitamins
Cholesterol Fat in animal products like meat, cheese, eggs Excess cholesterol in the body will start to build up inside the artery walls causing atherosclerosis Recommended blood level under 200 mg/dl HDL – High Density Lipoprotein – “good”, removes excess cholesterol from the cells and carries it back to liver to be broken down/eliminated LDL – Low Density Lipoprotein – carry fat to cells
Proteins Many functions: 1. Enzymes 2. Source of energy 3. Muscles, hormones, clotting, antibiotics all depend on proteins AMINO ACIDS – building blocks of proteins Proteins that contain all amino acids are COMPLETE PROTEINS – milk, eggs, meat
Proteins Cont. Proteins that do not contain all amino acids are INCOMPLETE PROTEINS – vegetables, beans, wheat Can’t store excess amino acids – excreted as urea Adults in US eat too much protein – puts extra burden on liver and kidney which must eliminate urea from body.
Minerals and Trace Elements MineralTrace Elements FluorineIodineIron From inorganic compounds in food, many necessary form human growth and maintenance Most important are sodium, potassium, calcium iron Present in very small amounts, toxic levels are close to healthy levels. Most minerals present in average adult diet In drinking water, needed for bones and teeth In shellfish and iodized salt, needed to make thyroid hormone In liver, lean meats, needed to make hemoglobin
Vitamins Vitamin- biologically active organic compound Function as coenzyme for normal health and growth, some behave like hormones A,D,E,K – fat soluble vitamins – can be stored by the body B vitamins, pantothenic acid, folic acid, biotin and Vitamin C – water soluble – can’t be stored, excess excreted by body
Fiber Found in plant foods like whole-grain breads, cereals, beans, and peas, other vegetables and fruit Eating a variety of plant food important for proper bowel function, may lower the risk of heart disease and some cancers.
Definitions (RDA) Recommended dietary allowances Chart that lists recommended intake of vitamins and minerals Basal Metabolic Rate – Amount of energy needed to maintain life when the body is at rest Metabolism- use of food nutrients by the body to produce energy
Food Guide Pyramid The food guide pyramid was redesigned in 2005. A rainbow of colored, vertical stripes represent the five food groups, as well as fats and oils. Orange- grains Green -vegetables Red -fruits Blue -milk and dairy products Purple -meat, beans, fish, and nuts Yellow -oils
The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) changed the pyramid because they wanted to do a better job of telling Americans how to be healthy. They guy climbing the staircase up the side of the pyramid shows how important it is to exercise and be active.
Nutrition Labeling FDA requires nutrition labeling for most foods Includes information on calories, nutrient contents Includes recommended daily allowances of nutrients.
Regular DietBalanced diet no restrictions Liquid Diet Clear or full liquid Used after surgery or heart attack For pts. With digestive problems or before x-ray of digestive tract. Low Cholesterol For pts. With atherosclerosis and heart disease Restrict foods high in saturated fat such as beef, liver, pork, lamb, egg yolk, cream cheese, shellfish, and whole milk Sodium Restricted Reduced salt intake for pts with cardiovascular disease and kidney disease and edema NO added salt and avoid smoked or processed foods, pickles, olives, and some processed cheese. Bland Diet Easily digested foods that don’t irritate digestive tract Avoid fried foods, spices raw fruits and vegs., coffee or tea, alcoholic and carbonated beverages For pts with ulcers or GI disease
Guidelines for a Healthy Diet 1. Eat a variety of foods 2. Maintain desirable weight 3. Avoid too much fat, saturated fat (animal fat) and cholesterol 4. Eat foods with adequate starch and fiber (roughage) 5. Avoid too much sugar 6. Avoid too much sodium 7. Don’t drink alcohol!
Eating Disorders Obesity Most common nutritional disease Weighs 15% more than optimal body weight for gender, height, and bone structure Obesity affects physical and mental health Causes- taking in more calories than are burned
Anorexia Nervosa Serious mental disorder, mostly in teenage females Criteria for diagnosis: 1. Intense fear of becoming obese that does not go away with wt. loss 2. Distorted body image( feels fat even when emaciated) 3. Weight loss of at least 25% of original body weight 4. Refusal to maintain minimal normal wt. 5. No known physical illness 6. Amenorrhea
Bulimia Episodic binge eating followed by PURGING (vomiting and laxative abuse) Usually women, older than teens
Definitions Anorexia: loss of appetite Malnutrition: State of poor nutrition due to diet or illness Fluorine Deficiency: tooth decay Iodine Deficiency: Goiter (enlarged thyroid) Iron Deficiency: Anemia