Do demos here….. 1)Hindsight Bias zConfirmation bias zOverconfidence
Why Study Psychology? HHindsight Bias wwe tend to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have foreseen it tthe “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon OOverconfidence wwe tend to think we know more than we do
How do we overcome bias? The Scientific Method Critical Thinking thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions
Scientific Method zSzState Problem zDzDevelop a Hypothesis zOzOperationalize Definitions zIzIdentify Variables zIzIdentify Population & sample size
The Scientific Method Hypothesis a testable prediction or educated guess often implied by a theory/observable behavior
The Scientific Method OOperational Definition aa statement of procedures (operations) used to define research variables eexample- iintelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures ( Stanford- Binet) DDrug use? SSelf esteem?
Experimentation EExperiment AAn investigation seeking to understand the cause and effect relationship between two variables.
IIndependent Variable tthe experimental factor that is manipulated tthe variable whose effect is being studied DDependent Variable tthe experimental factor that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
The Scientific Method zEzExperimental Group- The group exposed to the independent variable zCzControl Group- the group not exposed to the independent variable
Experimentation Population - The total group of subjects available. Random Assignment of a sample assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance minimizes pre-existing differences between those assigned to the different groups