Presentation on theme: "Psychology and Scientific Research. Experimental Science Definition: inquiry in seeking facts and the search for truth through testing of theories and."— Presentation transcript:
Experimental Science Definition: inquiry in seeking facts and the search for truth through testing of theories and facts Psychology is considered an “experimental science”
Scientific Method Contains Five Steps 1.Forming of a Question 2.Forming of a Hypothesis 3.Testing of the Hypothesis 4.Analyzing Results 5.Draw Conclusions
Step 1: Forming a Question Start research by forming a question about: – A daily experience – A psychological theory – Common Knowledge – Folklore (myths, traditions, legends)
Step 2: Forming a Hypothesis Develop an “educated guess” Use “If” and “Then” format – If too much homework is given, then students will become stressed.
Identify Variables: -Dependent Variable the factor which is being measured that reflects change -Independent Variable the factor that is manipulated by the researcher that causes change Example: -Independent time spent studying for a test -Dependent the grade earned
Determine Groups: -Control Group the participants who do NOT receive treatment in a study -Experimental Group the participants who receive treatment in a study In an experiment about student’s studying & grades earned: -Some students are assigned to study (Experimental Group) -Others students are assigned NOT to study (Control Group)
Locate & Assign Subjects: Population group of people from which samples for research will be drawn Sample set of subjects drawn from a particular population Single Blind: subjects DO NOT know of their assignment Double Blind: subject & experimenter both DO NOT know of their assignments Randomization: subjects assigned through random or choice procedure
Give It A Try and Apply! 1.Receive Handout 1A “Research Methods” 2.Identify the Independent and Dependent Variables 3.State the “Hypothesis” being tested
Step 3: Test the Hypothesis – Testing Method: various tests are given to measure human behavior (ability, interests, IQ, personality) – Survey Method: people respond to a series of questions about a particular subject – Case-Study Method: conduct in- depth investigation of individuals or small groups Choose a Research Method, Then Gather Information!
Step 3: Test Hypothesis – Longitudinal Method: participants are observed at intervals over an extended period of time – Cross-Section Method: researchers compare similarities and differences among people in different age groups at a specific time – Naturalistic Method: researchers observe participants in their natural settings – Laboratory Method: participants are observed in a lab setting
Give It A Try and Apply! 1.Receive Handout: “Name That Research Method” 2.Read each of the 6 examples. 3.Match each example with the correct Research Method
Step 4: Analyze the Results Discover what the results mean. Look for patterns, relationships, and correlations – Correlation: measurement of the relationship between two variables – Stronger the correlation the more closely the two variables are related
Positive Correlation: – as one variable increases so does the other – as one variable decreases so does the other
Negative Correlation: – as one variable increases the other deceases
Causation: – The action that produces an effect – Ex: One variable causes the other to occur
Give It A Try and Apply! 1.Receive Handout: “Mean, Median, & Mode” 2.Complete the Worksheet 1.Receive Handout: “Types of Correlations” 2.Read the 10 statements and determine the relationship.
Step 5: Draw Conclusions State whether your hypothesis was correct or incorrect – May need to adjust hypothesis – May need to conduct further research Report findings in psychological journals - Goal: distribute information and allow for professional critique
Give It A Try and Apply! 1.Receive Handout: “How Do Psychologists Interpret Data” 2.Complete the Worksheet