Presentation on theme: "How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions"— Presentation transcript:
1 How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions Module 2Research StrategiesHow Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions-I-
2 Our intuition and common sense Hindsight Biaswe tend to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have foreseen itthe “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenonOverconfidencewe tend to think that we know more than we doPerceiving order in random eventsOur eagerness to make sense of the worldWe overestimate our own intuition
3 Thinking Critically With Psychological Science To believe with certainty, we must begin by doubtingThinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusionsexamines assumptionsidentifies hidden valuesevaluates evidenceassesses conclusions
4 The Scientific Method The Process of Research Observing a phenomenon Formulating an ideaTesting an ideaGeneralizing or refining the idea
5 The Scientific Method Formulating an idea Testing an idea Initial phase of research, in which observations, beliefs, information, and general knowledge lead to a new idea or a different way of thinking about some phenomenonTesting an ideaOrganizing countless observations into a theoryFormulating testable predictions: hypothesesTesting the hypothesesUsing operational definitions of conceptsGeneralizing or refining the idea
6 The Scientific Method Theory Hypothesis an explanation that integrates principles and organizes and predicts behavior or events.Theory explains the underlying reason of the observed phenomenonProduce hypothesesHypothesisa testable prediction, often prompted by a theory, to enable us to accept, reject or revise the theory.
7 The Scientific MethodTheory explainstheunderlying reasonWHY?
8 Testing hypotheses using operational definitions a statement of procedures (operations) used to define research variablesAlso enables other researchers to replicateexample-intelligence may be operationally defined as the score obtained from the intelligence test measuresPsychological well-being can be operationally defined as high level of life satisfaction and low depression.Academic success can be operationally defined as GPA.
9 The Scientific Method Replication repeating the essence of a research study to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstancesusually with different participants in different situationsthe research findings can be generalizable to other samples/situations.
11 Methods of psychologyTo describe human and animal behavior and mental processes, psychologists conduct:Case studiesSurveysObservations (naturalistic / lab)
12 Description Case Study observation technique in which on individual (or few incidences) are studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principalsStudies of brain damaged individualsPiagetSuggest hypotheses for further studiesProblems??May be unrepresentativecannot be generalizable
13 Description Survey Looks at many cases with less depth. Ask people to report thier behaviors or opinions.Market surveysKoç University student satisfaction surveyProblems??
14 Who do we survey?Usually question a representative, random sample of people seleced from a population.Populationall the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a studyRandom Samplea sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
15 How do we ask questions?If there is a serious fuel shortage this winter, do you think there should be a law requiring people to lower the heat in their homes, or do you oppose such a law?Should be 39.4 %Oppose 60.6 %If there is a serious fuel shortage this winter, do you think there should be a law requiring people to lower the heat in their homes, or do you oppose such a law because it would be too difficult to enforce?Should be 26.0 %Oppose 74.0 %
16 Description Naturalistic Observation observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations (or in more controlled environments) without trying to manipulate and control the situationDating behaviors of Koç University students?Problems?
17 Methods of psychology2. To predict human and animal behavior and mental processes, psychologists conduct- Correlational studies: the examination of the quantitative relationships between two or more variableshow does one behavior relate to the occurrence of another behavior?if we know one behavior’s pattern can we then, in turn, predict the pattern of occurrence of another behavior?
18 Variable DefinedAny characteristic or attribute that varies in amount and kindGenderSuccessWeight, HeightSelf-esteemReaction time in a learning experimentIntelligenceAchievement motivationAny characteristic or attribute of persons, objects, or events that can take on different numerical values.These different values are called attributesSo gender: variablefemale: attributepersonality: variableextravert: attribute
19 (positive or negative) CorrelationCorrelation Coefficienta statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well either factor predicts the otherIndicates directionof relationship(positive or negative)Correlationcoefficientr = +.37Indicates strengthof relationship(0.00 to 1.00)
21 Correlation does not imply causation Three Possible Cause-Effect Relationshipscould cause(1)Low self-esteemDepressionor(2)Depressioncould causeLow self-esteemorLow self-esteem(3)Distressing eventsor biologicalpredispositioncould causeandDepression