Presentation on theme: "The smallest way to describe our Earth. Atoms This is the smallest unit of an element having the same properties of that element Arrangement and types."— Presentation transcript:
Elements Elements are a substance that can not be broken down into a simpler form All the elements can be found on the periodic table. There are 94 elements that are naturally occurring in nature. Hydrogen- plutonium. All the rest are man-made.
Elements The elements after bismuth (element 83) the elements are not very stable and begin to decay
Elements A single atom of an element is made up of 3 basic parts: protons, neutrons, and electrons Protons and Neutrons are concentrated in the middle of the atom The electrons rotate around the atom
Elements Protons are particles that have a postive electric charge Neutrons are particles that have no electric charge (neutral) Electrons are particles that have a negative electric charge
Mass and Atomic numbers The atomic mass is equal to the sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom The atomic number is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus
Elements In a neutral atom (an atom with a neutral charge) will have the same number of protons and electrons In a neutral atom the number of neutrons can vary but unless specified differently will also be the same as protons.
Compounds Compounds are substances that are made up of two or more elements chemically combined that cannot be separated physically Compounds are held together by chemical bonds
Chemical Bonds Chemical Bond- Foces that hold together the atoms that combine to make up a compound Types of chemical bonds: Covalent bonds and ionic bonds
Types of Bonds Ionic bonds are a combination of oppistely charged ions Ions are electrically charged atoms Atoms become ions by losing or gaining electrons If an atom gains electrons it is negatively charged If an atom loses electrons it is positively charged
Types of Bonds Covalent bonds is the attraction of two atoms through a sharing of electrons. Water is an example of a covalent bond
Mixing things up Mixture is many different types of objects mixed together. This is not a bond. These objects are just mixed together
Mixing things up A type of mixture that deals with dissolving substances. Ex. Salt water, coffee, Tea with sugar
Mixing things up Heterogeneous mixture is a combination of materials that are easily recognizable. Ex. Soil Homogeneous mixtures are a combination of materials that are not easily recognizable. Ex. Milk
Matter As we have talked about before matter is anything that takes up space and has a mass In other words, it has a volume and weighs something.
Matter Matter has two different properties that you need to be able to distinguish between; physical and chemical properties
Physical Properties Physical properties are those that you can observe without changing a substance into a new substance Ex. Color, shape, odor, density
Chemical Properties Chemical properties are those that descrbe how one substance changes when reacting with another substance Ex. Rusting of Iron, burning of wood
4 States of Matter There are four states of matter in which they can exist: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma Each has its own way of forming the atoms of a certain substance
Solids Solids are formed by atoms or molecules that are in a fixed position relative to each other Atoms are molecules are strongly attracted to each other and resist being separated Set Shape and set Volume
Types of Solids Crystalline structures- have regular shapes and may cleave along well- defined surfaces Glasses- They do not break along well defined surfaces. Shatter or break into lots of tiny pieces.
Liquids Liquids is a type of matter where the atoms or molecules remain close to one another, but are fee to change positions with each other. This allows liquid to flow as it takes the shape of its container Set Volume but takes shape of container
Gases Gases contain atoms or molecules that have very little attractive force on each other Fill entire container no matter how large or small NO set volume and No set shape
Plasma This is matter heated to temperatures much higher than we normally see. Plasmas are composed of ions and free electrons You can find these in lightning bolts, florescent lights, and even stars