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The Properties of Matter

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Presentation on theme: "The Properties of Matter"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Properties of Matter
The Nature of Matter The Properties of Matter

2 What is matter? Easier to describe than to define. It is the “stuff” that makes up all objects. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. Mass is the measure of the amount of matter in an object. Different types of matter – different characteristics or properties (color, odor, ability to dissolve, temperature at which a substance melts or boils)

3 Two classifications of matter
Matter may be a substance – a particular kind of matter, all samples of which have the same makeup and properties. A substance is a pure sample of matter. Examples, gold, salt, silver, sugar. Matter may be a mixture – a combination of two or more kinds of matter that can be separated by physical means. The different kinds of matter in a mixture keep their own properties.

4 What are substances? There are two kinds of substances: elements and compounds Elements are substances that cannot be made into simpler substances by ordinary means. Elements are made up of only one type of atom. There are currently 117 different elements, 90 occur naturally, most in compounds.

5 What is a compound? A compound is a substance that is made up of two or more elements chemically combined in a fixed proportion. Water, salt and sugar are all compounds. Compounds keep their properties during some changes. But compounds can be broken down into their individual elements.

6 What about mixtures? Mixtures can be uniform or non-uniform.
Most matter occurs as mixtures. Some mixtures are uniform throughout like brass. It is a uniform mixture of zinc and copper. However, non-uniform mixtures vary in composition and properties from one point in the mixture to another.

7 The Nature of Matter Four states of matter

8 Four forms or states of matter
Solid - definite volume, definite shape Liquid – definite volume, no definite shape Gas – no definite shape or volume Plasma – a hot gas with electrically charged particles, so no definite shape or volume

9 Solids 2 groups of solids
Crystalline – solid whose particles are arranged in regular, repeating 3D patterns Amorphous – solid whose particles lack a regular, repeating order. All particles are jumbled together

10 Solids, continued Particles are very close together in solids
Particles are held together by strong forces of attraction Particles in matter are always in motion In a solid, particles vibrate about fixed positions but do not move around freely

11 Liquids Particles in a liquid are held together by strong forces of attraction But forces of attraction are not strong enough to hold liquids in a definite shape Particles in liquids are always in movement, slipping past one another in non-fixed positions, so a liquid will flow and take the shape of its container

12 Viscosity The resistance of a fluid to flow. Ex. Molasses is more viscous than water.

13 Gases Particles in a gas are very far apart compared to solids and liquids Forces between gas particles are very weak. Gas particles move quickly and collide with one another often. As a result gases mix together easily

14 Plasma The sun and other stars are in a plasma state
Plasma only exists in extremely high temperatures, (2000°C) rarely on earth The sun and other stars are in a plasma state Particles move very fast and shake violently Plasma contains positively charged ions and free floating electrons so it conducts electricity

15 VOCABULARY CONDENSATION – gas to a liquid
SUBLIMATION – solid to a gas without going through the liquid phase FREEZING – liquid to a solid EVAPORATION – liquid to a gas MELTING – solid to a liquid

16 Kinetic Molecular Theory
As a substance is heated the molecules begin to vibrate and thus move faster. This movement causes the bonds to break as the various phases are moved through.


18 Flow chart of states of matter
freezing melting condensation evaporation sublimation absolute zero Draw a visual representation to illustrate each of the topics. Use correct vocabulary words to describe the meaning

19 Boyle’s Law As the pressure of a gas increases, it’s volume decreases.
P1V1 = P2V2

20 Charles’ Law As temperature increases the volume of a gas increases.


22 What does all of that stuff mean?
Periodic Chart What does all of that stuff mean?

23 How is the Periodic Chart arranged?
Periods – A row of the table (right to left) Groups – A column (up & down) Metals Non-metals Metalloids Lanthanides – elements 58-71 Actinides – elements

24 What is on a block in the chart?
Name Elemental abbreviation - symbol Atomic Number Atomic mass Valence electrons – number and placement Hydrogen, Sodium, Mercury H, Na, Hg 1, 11, 80 - # of protons in nucleus 1.0008, , Electrons in the outermost shell of an atom, from 1 to 8

25 What is an atom? First picture of thorium atoms - SEM An atom is composed of subatomic particles with a nucleus at the center surrounded by electrons Neutrons and protons in the center Electrons orbit the nucleus in shells Scanning tunneling microscope image of uranium atoms

26 Structure and mass Protons (+ charged nucleons) and neutrons (neutral charged nucleons) have about the same mass The mass of protons and neutrons is about 1800 times the mass of an electron Electrically neutral atom if protons = electrons Ion if # of electrons is ≠ the # of protons

27 What is an molecule? Two or more elements combined in a proportional way Here is a model for methane CH4 and ammonia NH3

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