Presentation on theme: "The Properties of Matter"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Properties of Matter The Nature of MatterThe Properties of Matter
2 What is matter?Easier to describe than to define. It is the “stuff” that makes up all objects.Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. Mass is the measure of the amount of matter in an object.Different types of matter – different characteristics or properties (color, odor, ability to dissolve, temperature at which a substance melts or boils)
3 Two classifications of matter Matter may be a substance – a particular kind of matter, all samples of which have the same makeup and properties. A substance is a pure sample of matter. Examples, gold, salt, silver, sugar.Matter may be a mixture – a combination of two or more kinds of matter that can be separated by physical means. The different kinds of matter in a mixture keep their own properties.
4 What are substances?There are two kinds of substances: elements and compoundsElements are substances that cannot be made into simpler substances by ordinary means. Elements are made up of only one type of atom. There are currently 117 different elements, 90 occur naturally, most in compounds.
5 What is a compound?A compound is a substance that is made up of two or more elements chemically combined in a fixed proportion. Water, salt and sugar are all compounds. Compounds keep their properties during some changes. But compounds can be broken down into their individual elements.
6 What about mixtures? Mixtures can be uniform or non-uniform. Most matter occurs as mixtures. Some mixtures are uniform throughout like brass. It is a uniform mixture of zinc and copper. However, non-uniform mixtures vary in composition and properties from one point in the mixture to another.
8 Four forms or states of matter Solid - definite volume, definite shapeLiquid – definite volume, no definite shapeGas – no definite shape or volumePlasma – a hot gas with electrically charged particles, so no definite shape or volume
9 Solids 2 groups of solids Crystalline – solid whose particles are arranged in regular, repeating 3D patternsAmorphous – solid whose particles lack a regular, repeating order. All particles are jumbled together
10 Solids, continued Particles are very close together in solids Particles are held together by strong forces of attractionParticles in matter are always in motionIn a solid, particles vibrate about fixed positions but do not move around freely
11 LiquidsParticles in a liquid are held together by strong forces of attractionBut forces of attraction are not strong enough to hold liquids in a definite shapeParticles in liquids are always in movement, slipping past one another in non-fixed positions, so a liquid will flow and take the shape of its container
12 ViscosityThe resistance of a fluid to flow. Ex. Molasses is more viscous than water.
13 GasesParticles in a gas are very far apart compared to solids and liquidsForces between gas particles are very weak.Gas particles move quickly and collide with one another often. As a result gases mix together easily
14 Plasma The sun and other stars are in a plasma state Plasma only exists in extremely high temperatures, (2000°C) rarely on earthThe sun and other stars are in a plasma stateParticles move very fast and shake violentlyPlasma contains positively charged ions and free floating electrons so it conducts electricity
15 VOCABULARY CONDENSATION – gas to a liquid SUBLIMATION – solid to a gas without going through the liquid phaseFREEZING – liquid to a solidEVAPORATION – liquid to a gasMELTING – solid to a liquid
16 Kinetic Molecular Theory As a substance is heated the molecules begin to vibrate and thus move faster. This movement causes the bonds to break as the various phases are moved through.
17 ABSOLUTE ZERO - TEMPERATURE WHERE ALL MOLECULAR MOTION STOPS.
18 Flow chart of states of matter freezingmeltingcondensationevaporationsublimationabsolute zeroDraw a visual representation to illustrate each of the topics.Use correct vocabulary words to describe the meaning
19 Boyle’s Law As the pressure of a gas increases, it’s volume decreases. P1V1 = P2V2
20 Charles’ LawAs temperature increases the volume of a gas increases.
22 What does all of that stuff mean? Periodic ChartWhat does all of that stuff mean?
23 How is the Periodic Chart arranged? Periods – A row of the table (right to left)Groups – A column (up & down)MetalsNon-metalsMetalloidsLanthanides – elements 58-71Actinides – elements
24 What is on a block in the chart? NameElemental abbreviation - symbolAtomic NumberAtomic massValence electrons – number and placementHydrogen, Sodium, MercuryH, Na, Hg1, 11, 80 - # of protons in nucleus1.0008, ,Electrons in the outermost shell of an atom, from 1 to 8
25 What is an atom?First picture of thorium atoms - SEMAn atom is composed of subatomic particles with a nucleus at the center surrounded by electronsNeutrons and protons in the centerElectrons orbit the nucleus in shellsScanning tunneling microscope image of uranium atoms
26 Structure and massProtons (+ charged nucleons) and neutrons (neutral charged nucleons) have about the same massThe mass of protons and neutrons is about 1800 times the mass of an electronElectrically neutral atom if protons = electronsIon if # of electrons is ≠ the # of protons
27 What is an molecule?Two or more elements combined in a proportional wayHere is a model for methane CH4 and ammonia NH3