What is Matter? matter is anything that has mass and volume Substance is pure matter made of only one type of particle
Matter has Volume Volume: the amount of space that matter takes up
Volume rectangular solid with regular sides, Use the formula Volume = l x w x h Label your answer with Cubic centimeters or cm3 or CCs
solids with irregular sides: use displacement method: Fill a graduated cylinder with water, add the material and measure how much water is pushed out of the way Label your answer using cubic centimeters or milliliters
volume Liquids: measured with a graduated cylinder Label your answer in liters or milliliters
volume Gas: measure the size of the container Label your answer using cubic meters or cubic centimeters
Mass is the amount of matter in an object Mass is measured with a balance using grams as the base metric unit mass
MATTER HAS DENSITY Density is: the amount of matter in a given space. Density is calculated: Density = Mass Volume
density Density is measured with a balance (for mass) and a graduated cylinder (for volume) Label your answer with the metric units g/ml or g/cm3
Water’s density is 1g/ml or 1 g/ cm 3 Every pure substance has its own density, density is a characteristic property used to identify a substance density
MATTER CAN BE DESCRIBED BY ITS PROPERTIES. A property is a characteristic used to describe an object. Both chemical and physical properties are used to identify and describe matter
1. Physical property - a characteristic of a pure substance that can be observed without changing it into another substance 2 types of properties
Examples of physical properties: color taste odor volume mass density viscosity solubility melting point boiling point Electrical conductivity thermal conductivity
Chemical property - a characteristic of a pure substance that describes its ability to change into a different substance with new properties Chemical property
Examples of chemical properties: Ability to rust Ability to tarnish Flammable Reacts with baking soda Reacts with acids Reacts with bases
Matter can be identified by its properties that do not change even when the sample size changes. Some of these properties are: density, melting point, boiling point, and what it reacts with.
Elements: Elements are pure substances made up of only one type of atom. They cannot be broken down into a simpler substance There are about 115 known elements, 92 natural Rest are man-made
element Each element has its own atomic structure and a unique set of physical and chemical properties that identify it the smallest particle of each element is the atom
Compounds a pure substance composed of two or more elements chemically combined in a set ratio smallest piece of a compound is called a molecule.
compounds Most elements in nature are combined with other elements most substances we use everyday are made of compounds.
compounds When elements are chemically combined they form compounds with properties that are DIFFERENT from the original elements
compounds Compounds can be chemically broken down into the individual elements that form them
Examples of property changes Water – clear liquid formed from two highly explosive gasses Table salt – white crystalline solid necessary for cellular function formed from an explosive silvery metal and a poisonous green gas
compounds Chemical formula - Compounds combine according to certain ratios, there is a set “recipe” Ex: water is ALWAYS 2 hydrogen atoms bonded to 1 oxygen atom
Mixtures A mixture is 2 or more substances PHYSICALLY combined Each substance keeps its original physical properties
mixtures Parts of a mixture can be separated by PHYSICAL changes Substances in the mixture can be any amount in the mixture (no set “recipe”)
Heterogeneous mixtures have particles big enough to see, they are not evenly mixed and some particles are big enough to separate out. 2 kinds of mixtures
Homogeneous mixtures look the same throughout, they are evenly mixed and do not separate on their own.
Solutions a homogenous mixture with the smallest particle size Concentrated – a lot of one substance dissolved in another. Ex. Very salty salt water Dilute – not very much of one substance dissolved in another Ex. Not very much salt in salt water
Matter can change in two ways Physical change: a change in form or appearance, but no new substance is created; most physical changes are easy to undo.
Examples of physical change Change of State: solid to a liquid; liquid to a gas, etc. Change in form or shape dissolving salt in water bending metal crushing breaking
Chemical change a change that occurs when one or more substances are changed into entirely different substances with new properties
Examples of chemical changes Souring milk, bubbling or Fizzing when 2 things combine, Iron rusting, Bleach taking color out of something Burning
Conservation laws Law of Conservation of Matter - Matter is not created or destroyed in any chemical or physical change Law of conservation of energy- Energy is neither created nor destroyed, but can change forms
Energy Energy – ability to do work or cause change. Like matter, energy is never created or destroyed in chemical reactions, it can only be transformed (changed from one form to another)
energy Thermal energy – total energy of all of the particles in an object Temperature – measure of the average energy of random motion of particles of matter
energy Endothermic change – a change in which energy is taken in. Ex: melting ice Exothermic change – a change in which energy is released. Ex: combustion – heat and light are produced.
energy Chemical energy – energy stored in chemical bonds between atoms, energy stored in the foods you eat, gasoline to fuel a car, etc. Electromagnetic energy – energy that travels through space and waves. Ex: radio waves, microwave oven, etc.