2 Section 2.1 Matter Matter – anything that has volume and mass On Earth exists in 3 states:Solid - has definite shape and volumeRocks and mineralsLiquid – has definite volume, but no definite shapeEarth’s oceans, rivers and lakesGas - has neither definite shape or volumeEarth’s atmosphere
3 Section 2.1 MatterElements – a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical or physical means.The basic building blocks of minerals.Organized by their properties in the Periodic Table.More than 112 know elements.92 occur naturally, others are produced in labs.
4 Section 2.1 MatterPeriodic Table – chart of all elements organized by their propertiesRows are called periodsColumns are called groupsElements – Name is abbreviated with 1-3 lettersAtomic number – elements in order according to this number which is located over the elements abbreviationMass number – the total mass of the atom is located below the abreviation
6 Section 2.1 MatterAtoms - the smallest particle of matter that contains the characteristics of an element.Nucleus – central region of an atomContains protons and neutronsProtons – positively chargedNeutrons – no charge, neutralElectrons – negatively chargedSurround the atom’s nucleusSmallest particle in an atom
7 Section 2.1 MatterAtomic number – the number of protons in the nucleus of an atomElectrons are equal to the number of protonsAtomic Mass – protons and neutrons togetherNeutrons = Atomic Mass – Protons (Atomic Number)
8 Section 2.1 Matter Ti 22 – Atomic Number 47.90 – Atomic Mass Protons = 22Electrons = 22Neutrons = = 2622TiTitanium47.90
9 Section 2.1 Matter Energy Levels – shells Surround the nucleus Contain electrons
10 Section 2.1 MatterIsotopes of an element have the same number of protons but varying numbers of neutronsHave different mass numbers: the sum of the neutrons plus protonsMany Isotopes are radioactive and emit energy and particlesMass number is the total mass of the atom (protons plus neutrons)
11 Section 2.1 Matter Why Atoms Bond When an atom’s outermost energy level does not contain the maximum number of electrons, the atom is likely to form a chemical bond with one or more atoms.A compound consists of two or more elements that are chemically combined in specific proportions.An ion is an atom that gains or loses electrons.
12 Sections 2.1 Matter Types of Chemical Bonds Ionic Bonds form between positive and negative ions.Covalent Bonds form when atoms share electrons.Metallic Bonds form when metal ions share electrons.