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Chapter 2 Minerals.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Minerals."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2 Minerals

2 Section 2.1 Matter Matter – anything that has volume and mass
On Earth exists in 3 states: Solid - has definite shape and volume Rocks and minerals Liquid – has definite volume, but no definite shape Earth’s oceans, rivers and lakes Gas - has neither definite shape or volume Earth’s atmosphere

3 Section 2.1 Matter Elements – a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical or physical means. The basic building blocks of minerals. Organized by their properties in the Periodic Table. More than 112 know elements. 92 occur naturally, others are produced in labs.

4 Section 2.1 Matter Periodic Table – chart of all elements organized by their properties Rows are called periods Columns are called groups Elements – Name is abbreviated with 1-3 letters Atomic number – elements in order according to this number which is located over the elements abbreviation Mass number – the total mass of the atom is located below the abreviation

5 Periodic Table

6 Section 2.1 Matter Atoms - the smallest particle of matter that contains the characteristics of an element. Nucleus – central region of an atom Contains protons and neutrons Protons – positively charged Neutrons – no charge, neutral Electrons – negatively charged Surround the atom’s nucleus Smallest particle in an atom

7 Section 2.1 Matter Atomic number – the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom Electrons are equal to the number of protons Atomic Mass – protons and neutrons together Neutrons = Atomic Mass – Protons (Atomic Number)

8 Section 2.1 Matter Ti 22 – Atomic Number 47.90 – Atomic Mass
Protons = 22 Electrons = 22 Neutrons = = 26 22 Ti Titanium 47.90

9 Section 2.1 Matter Energy Levels – shells Surround the nucleus
Contain electrons

10 Section 2.1 Matter Isotopes of an element have the same number of protons but varying numbers of neutrons Have different mass numbers: the sum of the neutrons plus protons Many Isotopes are radioactive and emit energy and particles Mass number is the total mass of the atom (protons plus neutrons)

11 Section 2.1 Matter Why Atoms Bond
When an atom’s outermost energy level does not contain the maximum number of electrons, the atom is likely to form a chemical bond with one or more atoms. A compound consists of two or more elements that are chemically combined in specific proportions. An ion is an atom that gains or loses electrons.

12 Sections 2.1 Matter Types of Chemical Bonds
Ionic Bonds form between positive and negative ions. Covalent Bonds form when atoms share electrons. Metallic Bonds form when metal ions share electrons.

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