2 MatterMatter is the term used to describe anything that has mass and takes up space.Four states of matter:gas, liquid, solid, and plasmaExamples:Gas: hydrogen, oxygenLiquid: water, magmaSolid: rocks, metalsPlasma: Lighting, stars, and fire!!
3 MassMass is the amount of matter in an object or how much it material is inside and outside the object.When we talk about elements from the periodic table we talk about their atomic mass, or how much mass the atom has.
4 All matter is made of atoms and the structure of an object is based on the atoms quickness and densely.
5 Changing StatesChanging states requires energy in the form of heat. Changing states may also be due to the change in pressure in a system.Heat of formation, Hf.Heat of vaporization, Hv
6 Kinetic Molecular Theory SolidsHave a definite shapeHave a definite volumeKinetic Molecular TheoryMolecules are held close together and there is very little movement between them.
7 LiquidsHave an indefinite shapeHave a definite volumeKinetic Molecular Theory:Atoms and molecules have more space between them than a solid does, but less than a gas (ie. It is more “fluid”.)
8 GasesHave an indefinite shapeHave an indefinite volumeKinetic Molecular Theory:Molecules are moving in random patterns with varying amounts of distance between the particles.
9 Kinetic Molecular Model of Water At 100°C, water becomes water vapor, a gas. Molecules can move randomly over large distances.Between 0°C and 100 °C, water is a liquid. In the liquid state, water molecules are close together, but can move about freely.Below 0°C, water solidifies to become ice. In the solid state, water molecules are held together in a rigid structure.
10 Have an indefinite shape Have an indefinite volume PlasmaHave an indefinite shapeHave an indefinite volumePlasma is distinct from a gas because it possesses unique properties. Free electrical charges (not bound to atoms or ions) cause plasma to be electrically conductive. Plasma may be formed by heating and ionizing a gas.
11 STATES OF MATTER LIQUID PLASMA SOLID GAS Tightly packed, in a regular patternVibrate, but do not move from place to placeClose together with no regular arrangement.Vibrate, move about, and slide past each otherWell separated with no regular arrangement.Vibrate and move freely at high speedsHas no definite volume or shape and is composed of electrical charged particles
14 Atomic structure Nucleus is the center of the atom Protons + Neutrons = NucleusProtons are a particle with a positive chargeNeutrons are a particle with a no charge at all.Electrons are a particle in an atom with a negative charge. It is the smallest part of the atom.
15 Rules about electronsElectrons travel around the nucleus in (2) two, the next level is eight (8), and the third is eighteen (18).
16 The structure of all atoms are the same, the only thing that changes are the number of particles within the atom.Atoms are defined by the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus.
18 So all charges must balance to create an element
19 ElementsElements are matter made up of only one type of atom (remember this is based on the amount of protons and neutrons.)Gold is an element made up of only gold atoms, and iron is only made up of iron atoms.Elements are the primary colors of matter!
20 Bonding: Come together now! Bonding happens due to is the number of electrons needed to fill the outermost shell of an atom.Electrons travel around the nucleus in (2) two, the next level is eight (8), and the third is eighteen (18).
21 Bonding: Come together now! Valence is the number of electrons needed to fill the outermost shell of an atom. This is how an atom generally bonds or number of bonds an atom can form.Show you a rule for a few elements!How many people can be seated?Odd rule; there can only be a total of eight bonding sites, so there are rules called the octet rule.
25 CompoundsA compound is a form of matter that is make when two or more elements combine chemically.Put oxygen and hydrogen together and you get the compound water.
26 Chemical formulasChemical formulas are made up of symbols and numbers that tell what elements are in a compound.ExamplesH2ONaClNH3C6H12O6
27 MixturesIf two or more substances are put together by a physical change but do not combine to make a compound the result is called a mixture.
28 NOTES AS A TABLE ELEMEMENT COMPOUND MIXTURE One kind of atom due to the amount of protons and neutronsAtoms of two or more elements bound together chemicallyElement + Element = CompoundTwo or more different elements and/or compounds physically combineCan not be broken down into a simpler type of matter (physically or chemically)Can be broken into simpler forms, by chemical, not physicalCan be separated into parts by physical meansCan exist as an atom or molecule (atom = argonMolecule = nitrogen)Contains the same # of atoms of both elements, but is sharing particlesRetains properties of its partsEXAMPLESElementsCompoundMixtureOxygen, Copper, GoldWater, Salt, SugarAir, Soil, Granite Rock