1 Chapter 4Section 1 MatterObjectivesCompare chemical properties and physical properties of matter.Describe the basic structure of an atom.Compare atomic umber, mass number, and atomic mass.Define isotope.Describe the arrangement of elements in the periodic table.
2 Properties of Matter, continued Chapter 4Section 1 MatterProperties of Matter, continuedPhysical properties are characteristics that can be observed without changing the composition of the substance.Physical properties include density, color, hardness, freezing point, boiling point, and the ability to conduct an electric current.Chemical properties are characteristics that describe how a substance reacts with other substance to produce different substances.
3 Comparing Physical and Chemical Properties Chapter 4Section 1 MatterComparing Physical and Chemical Properties
4 Properties of Matter, continued Chapter 4Section 1 MatterProperties of Matter, continuedElementselement a substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means; all atoms of an element have the same atomic numberEach element has a characteristic set of physical and chemical properties that identify it.Every known element is represented by a symbol of one or two letters.
5 Properties of Matter, continued Chapter 4Section 1 MatterProperties of Matter, continuedAtomsElements are made of atoms.atom the smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical properties of that elementA single atom is so small that its size is difficult to imagine.
6 Chapter 4 Atomic Structure Section 1 Matter Even though atoms are very tiny, they are made up of smaller parts called subatomic particles.There are three types of subatomic particles—protons, electrons, and neutrons.proton a subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is located in the nucleus of an atom; the number of protons of the nucleus is the atomic number, which determines the identity of an elementelectron a subatomic particle that has a negative chargeneutron a subatomic particle that has no charge and that is located in the nucleus of an atom
7 Atomic Structure, continued Chapter 4Section 1 MatterAtomic Structure, continuedThe NucleusThe protons and neutrons of an atom form the nucleus.The positively charged nucleus makes up most of an atom’s mass but very little of its volume. The volume of an atom is mostly empty space.The Electron CloudThe electrons of an atom move in a certain region of space called an electron cloud that surrounds the nucleus.The negatively charged electrons are attracted to the positively charged nucleus. This attraction holds electrons in the atom.
9 Chapter 4 Atomic Number Section 1 Matter The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is called the atomic number.All atoms of any given element have the same atomic number. An element’s atomic number sets the atoms of that element apart from the atoms of all other elements.Elements on the periodic table are ordered according to their atomic numbers.Elements in the same column on the periodic table have similar arrangements of electrons in their atoms, and therefore have similar chemical properties.
10 Atomic Number, continued Chapter 4Section 1 MatterAtomic Number, continuedThe diagram below shows the atomic numbers and mass numbers of three elements.
11 Atomic Number, continued Chapter 4Section 1 MatterAtomic Number, continuedThe diagram below shows the periodic table.
13 Chapter 4 Atomic Mass Section 1 Matter The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom is the mass number.The mass of a subatomic particle is too small to be expressed easily in grams, so a special unit called the atomic mass unit (amu) is used.Protons and neutrons each have an atomic mass close to 1 amu.Electrons have much less mass than protons or neutrons do. The mass of 1 proton is equal to the combined mass of about 1,840 electrons.Because electrons add little to an atom’s total mass, their mass can be ignored when calculating an atom’s approximate mass.
14 Chapter 4 Atomic Mass, continued Reading Check Section 1 MatterAtomic Mass, continuedReading CheckWhat is the difference between atomic number, mass number, and atomic mass unit?
15 Chapter 4 Atomic Mass, continued Reading Check Section 1 MatterAtomic Mass, continuedReading CheckWhat is the difference between atomic number, mass number, and atomic mass unit?The atomic number is the number of protons in an atom’s nucleus. The mass number is the sum of the number of protons and the number of neutrons in an atom. The atomic mass unit is used to express the mass of subatomic particles or atoms.
16 Chapter 4 Atomic Mass, continued Isotopes Section 1 Matter Although all atoms of a given element contain the same number of protons, the number of neutrons may differ.isotope an atom that has the same number of protons (or the same atomic number) as the other atoms of the same element do but that has a different number of neutrons (and thus a different atomic mass)Because of their different number of neutrons and their different masses, different isotopes of the same element have slightly different properties.
17 Chapter 4 Atomic Mass, continued Average Atomic Mass Section 1 MatterAtomic Mass, continuedAverage Atomic MassBecause isotopes of an element have different masses, the periodic table uses an average atomic mass of each element.The average atomic mass is the weighted average of the atomic masses of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element.
18 Valence Electrons and Periodic Properties Chapter 4Section 1 MatterValence Electrons and Periodic PropertiesBased on similarities in their chemical properties, elements on the periodic table are arranged in columns, which are called groups.An atom’s chemical properties are largely determined by the number of the outermost electrons in an atom’s electron cloud. These electrons are called valence electrons.The elements that form each group commonly have the same number of valence electrons.
19 Valence Electrons and Periodic Properties, continued Chapter 4Section 1 MatterValence Electrons and Periodic Properties, continuedWhen an atom has 8 valence electrons, it is considered stable, or chemically unreactive. Unreactive atoms do not easily lose or gain electrons.Elements whose atoms have only one, two, or three valence electrons tend to lose electrons easily. These elements have metallic properties and are generally classified as metals.Elements whose atoms have from four to seven valence electrons are more likely to gain electrons. Many of these elements are classified as nonmetals.
20 Chapter 4 Objectives Define compound and molecule. Section 2 Combinations of AtomsChapter 4ObjectivesDefine compound and molecule.Interpret chemical formulas.Describe two ways that electrons form chemical bonds between atoms.Explain the differences between compounds and mixtures.
21 Chapter 4 Molecules Section 2 Combinations of Atoms Elements rarely occur in pure form in Earth’s crust. They generally occur in combination with other elements.compound a substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bondsThe properties of a compound differ from the properties of the elements that make up the compound.molecule a group of atoms that are held together by chemical forces; a molecule is the smallest unit of matter that can exist by itself and retain all of a substance’s chemical properties
22 Section 2 Combinations of Atoms Chapter 4Compounds
23 H2O = 2 H (hydrogen atoms) + 1 O (oxygen atom) Section 2 Combinations of AtomsChapter 4Chemical FormulasA chemical formula is a combination of letters and numbers that shows which elements make up a compound and the number of atoms of each element that are required to make a molecule of a compound.In a chemical formula, the subscript that appears after the symbol for an element shows the number of atoms of that element that are in a molecule. For example:H2O = 2 H (hydrogen atoms) + 1 O (oxygen atom)
24 Chapter 4 Chemical Equations Equation Structure Section 2 Combinations of AtomsChapter 4Chemical EquationsElements and compounds often combine through chemical reactions to form new compounds.The reaction of these elements and compounds can be described in a formula called a chemical equation.Equation StructureIn a chemical equation, the reactants (to the left of the arrow) form the products (to the right of the arrow) through chemical reactions.The arrow means “gives” or “yields.”
25 Chemical Equations, continued Section 2 Combinations of AtomsChapter 4Chemical Equations, continuedEquation Structure, continuedIn the following equation, one molecule of methane, CH4, reacts with two molecules of oxygen, O2, to yield one molecule of carbon dioxide, CO2, and two molecules of water, H2O.CH O CO H2Omethane oxygen yields carbon waterdioxide
26 Chemical Equations, continued Section 2 Combinations of AtomsChapter 4Chemical Equations, continuedThe diagram below shows a chemical equation.
27 Chemical Equations, continued Section 2 Combinations of AtomsChapter 4Chemical Equations, continuedBalanced EquationsA chemical equation must be balanced to be useful for showing the types and amounts of the products that could from from a particular set of reactantsAn equation is balanced when the number of atoms of each element on the right side of the equation is equal to the number of atoms of the same element on the left side.To balance an equation, you must put numbers called coefficients in front of chemical formulas.A coefficient multiplies the subscripts in an equation.
28 Balancing a Chemical Equation by Inspection Section 2 Combinations of AtomsChapter 4Balancing a Chemical Equation by Inspection
29 Chapter 4 Chemical Bonds Section 2 Combinations of Atoms The forces that hold together the atoms in molecules are called chemical bonds.Chemical bonds form because of the attraction between positive and negative charges.Atoms form chemical bonds by either sharing or transferring electrons from one atom to another.Scientists can study interactions of atoms to predict which kinds of atoms will form chemical bonds together.
30 Chemical Bonds, continued Section 2 Combinations of AtomsChapter 4Chemical Bonds, continuedReading CheckIn what two ways do atoms form chemical bonds?
31 Chemical Bonds, continued Section 2 Combinations of AtomsChapter 4Chemical Bonds, continuedReading CheckIn what two ways do atoms form chemical bonds?Atoms form chemical bonds by transferring electrons or by sharing electrons.
32 Chemical Bonds, continued Section 2 Combinations of AtomsChapter 4Chemical Bonds, continuedIonsWhen an electron is transferred from one atom to another, both atoms become charged.ion an atom or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons and has a negative or positive chargeIonic Bondsionic bond the attractive force between oppositely charged ions, which form when electrons are transferred from one atom or molecule to anotherA compound that forms through the transfer of electrons is called an ionic compound.
33 Chemical Bonds, continued Section 2 Combinations of AtomsChapter 4Chemical Bonds, continuedCovalent Bondscovalent bond a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electronsA compound that forms through the sharing of electrons is called a covalent compound.Polar Covalent BondsA covalent bonds in which the bonded atoms have an unequal attraction for the shared electrons is called a polar covalent compound.
34 Chemical Bonds, continued Section 2 Combinations of AtomsChapter 4Chemical Bonds, continuedThe diagram below compares ionic bonds and covalent bonds.
35 Chemical Bonds, continued Section 2 Combinations of AtomsChapter 4Chemical Bonds, continuedReading CheckWhy do water molecules form from polar covalent bonds?
36 Chemical Bonds, continued Section 2 Combinations of AtomsChapter 4Chemical Bonds, continuedReading CheckWhy do water molecules form from polar covalent bonds?The oxygen atom has a larger and more positively charged nucleus than the hydrogen atoms do. As a result, the oxygen nucleus pulls the electrons from the hydrogen atoms closer to it than the hydrogen nuclei pull the shared electrons from the oxygen. This unequal attraction forms a polar-covalent bond.
37 Chapter 4 Mixtures Heterogeneous Mixtures Section 2 Combinations of AtomsChapter 4Mixturesmixture a combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combinedBecause the substances that make up a mixture keep their individual properties, a mixture can be separated into its parts by physical means.Heterogeneous MixturesMixtures in which two or more substances are not uniformly distributed are called heterogeneous mixtures.
38 Chapter 4 Mixtures, continued Homogeneous Mixtures Section 2 Combinations of AtomsChapter 4Mixtures, continuedHomogeneous MixturesIn chemistry, the word homogeneous means “having the same composition and properties throughout.”solution a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances that are uniformly dispersed throughout the mixtureLiquids, gases, and solids can all be solutions.An alloy is a solution composed of two or more metals, such as steel.
39 Chapter 4 Maps in Action Element Resources in the United States