Presentation on theme: "Constructing Homes and Other Buildings"— Presentation transcript:
1 Constructing Homes and Other Buildings Chapter 17Constructing Homes and Other Buildings
2 Objectives Describe the preparation of a construction site. Explain how foundations and superstructures are constructed.Describe how interiors are finished.Discuss post-construction tasks.
3 Preparing the SiteStep 1 – Surveying the site to mark the property line.Step 2 – Clearing the site of anything that might interfere with construction.This might include trees, old structures, rocks, and/or excess soil.
4 Site prep continuedDemolition – rid the site of old buildings. This is done by tearing it down or blasting it down with explosives.Earthmoving – excess earth and rock are cleared away and the remaining earth is leveled and smoothed.
5 Laying out the SiteIdentifying and marking the exact location of the structure on the property.Using the site plan as a guide, workers take measurements from the stakes surveyors placed at each corner of the property.Boundaries are marked with batter board
6 Batter BoardsAre boards held horizontally by stakes driven into the ground.Placed four to five feet outside the buildings boundaries.
7 Batter BoardString is used to connect batter boards at opposite sides of the building.The attached strings cross directly over the boundary stake at the corners of the building.
8 FoundationThe part of the structure that rest upon the earth and supports the superstructure.Foundations are usually made from concrete.Can be above or below ground.
9 Superstructure The superstructure rest on the foundation In buildings the superstructure usually consist of everything above ground.
10 ExcavatingExcavating, or digging, for the foundation is done by heavy equipment such asBackhoesFront-end loadersAnd Trenchers.
11 Parts of the foundation Footing – is the part of the structure below the foundation wall that distributes the structure’s weight.The footing is usually twice as wide as the foundation wall.
12 Building the Superstructure There are two types of superstructuresFramed structureLoad-bearing wall structure.
13 Framed StructureA framed building has a main skeleton, or framework, that supports the weight of the building.
15 StudsStuds – parallel, evenly spaced, vertical boards that form the frame of exterior and interior walls.Studs are nailed at the top and bottom to horizontal boards called plates.
16 JoistsParallel, evenly spaced, horizontal boards that form the frames that support floors and ceilings.
17 Rafters or roof trusses Rafters are sloping roof framing members cut from individual pieces of dimension lumber.They extend from the ridge downward over the side walls of the building.Roof trusses – are preassembled triangular frames that are used to frame the roof.
18 ContinuedThe sloping sides of the truss’s triangular frame serve as rafters; the base of each triangular frame forms a ceiling joist.
19 Load-Bearing Wall Structure Heavy walls support the weight of the structure.There is no frameBearing walls are usually made of concrete blocks, poured concrete.Bearing walls construction is best suited for low buildings of one of two stories.
20 Enclosing the superstructure Sheathing – is a layer of material, such as plywood, oriented-strand board, or insulating board, that is placed between the framing and the finished exterior.Vinyl or wood siding, stone, brick, and other materials are placed over the wall sheathing for decoration.
21 Installing FloorsSubfloors – consisting of sheets of plywood or oriented-strand board, is nailed or glued to the floor joists.The subfloor serves as a base for the finish flooring.Underlayment – is nailed or glued to the subfloor before the finish floor is applied.
22 Installing Utilities Utilities refer to service systems in a building Electrical systemsPlumbing systems(HVAC) Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems
23 InsulationIs material that is applied to walls and ceilings to help keep heat from entering the building in the summer and leaving in the winter.Helps make a house more energy-efficientInsulating materials are labeled according to their R-value. The higher the R-value, the better the insulating qualities.
24 Insulation FormsBatts or Blankets – These are thick fiberglass sheets or rolls, with a paper or foil backing. Designed to fit between framing.Rigid Panels – large sheets of plastic foam or natural fibers.Loose fill – fibrous or granular material that is blown into place using a special hose.
25 Finishing the Interior Ceilings and Walls – Enclosed with drywall. Drywall is a general term used for plasterboard or wallboard.Floor Coverings – finish flooring is usually installed over the underlayment after the walls and ceilings have been finished.Trim and Other Finish work – Used to cover edges where ceilings, walls, and floors meet.
26 Prefabricated Structures Components of structures and even whole structures are now being built in factories.The prefabricated parts or sections are shipped from the factory to the construction site.Three TypesPanelized ConstructionModular ConstructionManufacturing Housing
27 Panelized Construction In Panelized construction, the floors, walls, and roof all consist of prefabricated panels that have been made in factories.Panels are then shipped to the construction site where they are assembled to produce the framed and sheathed shell of the structure.
28 Modular ConstructionEntire units, or modules, of structures are built at factories and shipped to the site.The modules are assembled at the site to product a finished structure.Has been usedto build motels.
29 Manufactured HousingMany new single-family homes are entirely manufacture in factories and then shipped to the site.These homes are built in two or more sections to produce a finished structure.Example - Double wide or trailer
30 Finishing the SitePaving – Several areas around the homes and other buildings need to be paved.DrivewaysWalk WaysParking LotsLandscaping – Begins after all the debris from construction has been removed.Changing the natural features to make it more attractive.
31 ReviewPreparing the site involves clearing away unwanted objects, leveling and smoothing, and laying out the site.The foundation, which supports the superstructure, consists of footings and walls.The superstructure may have a wood or steel frame or may be a load-bearing wall structure.
32 Review ContinuedOnce the structure is framed, it is enclosed, the subfloor is laid, the utilities are roughed in, and insulation is installed.Components of structures and even entire structures may be prefabricated in factories, then shipped to construction sites to be assembled.Finishing the site involves paving and landscaping. Then the project is transferred to the owner.