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Constructing Homes and Other Buildings

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1 Constructing Homes and Other Buildings
Chapter 17 Constructing Homes and Other Buildings

2 Objectives Describe the preparation of a construction site.
Explain how foundations and superstructures are constructed. Describe how interiors are finished. Discuss post-construction tasks.

3 Preparing the Site Step 1 – Surveying the site to mark the property line. Step 2 – Clearing the site of anything that might interfere with construction. This might include trees, old structures, rocks, and/or excess soil.

4 Site prep continued Demolition – rid the site of old buildings. This is done by tearing it down or blasting it down with explosives. Earthmoving – excess earth and rock are cleared away and the remaining earth is leveled and smoothed.

5 Laying out the Site Identifying and marking the exact location of the structure on the property. Using the site plan as a guide, workers take measurements from the stakes surveyors placed at each corner of the property. Boundaries are marked with batter board

6 Batter Boards Are boards held horizontally by stakes driven into the ground. Placed four to five feet outside the buildings boundaries.

7 Batter Board String is used to connect batter boards at opposite sides of the building. The attached strings cross directly over the boundary stake at the corners of the building.

8 Foundation The part of the structure that rest upon the earth and supports the superstructure. Foundations are usually made from concrete. Can be above or below ground.

9 Superstructure The superstructure rest on the foundation
In buildings the superstructure usually consist of everything above ground.

10 Excavating Excavating, or digging, for the foundation is done by heavy equipment such as Backhoes Front-end loaders And Trenchers.

11 Parts of the foundation
Footing – is the part of the structure below the foundation wall that distributes the structure’s weight. The footing is usually twice as wide as the foundation wall.

12 Building the Superstructure
There are two types of superstructures Framed structure Load-bearing wall structure.

13 Framed Structure A framed building has a main skeleton, or framework, that supports the weight of the building.

14 Framing Members Studs Joists Rafters Roof Trusses

15 Studs Studs – parallel, evenly spaced, vertical boards that form the frame of exterior and interior walls. Studs are nailed at the top and bottom to horizontal boards called plates.

16 Joists Parallel, evenly spaced, horizontal boards that form the frames that support floors and ceilings.

17 Rafters or roof trusses
Rafters are sloping roof framing members cut from individual pieces of dimension lumber. They extend from the ridge downward over the side walls of the building. Roof trusses – are preassembled triangular frames that are used to frame the roof.

18 Continued The sloping sides of the truss’s triangular frame serve as rafters; the base of each triangular frame forms a ceiling joist.

19 Load-Bearing Wall Structure
Heavy walls support the weight of the structure. There is no frame Bearing walls are usually made of concrete blocks, poured concrete. Bearing walls construction is best suited for low buildings of one of two stories.

20 Enclosing the superstructure
Sheathing – is a layer of material, such as plywood, oriented-strand board, or insulating board, that is placed between the framing and the finished exterior. Vinyl or wood siding, stone, brick, and other materials are placed over the wall sheathing for decoration.

21 Installing Floors Subfloors – consisting of sheets of plywood or oriented-strand board, is nailed or glued to the floor joists. The subfloor serves as a base for the finish flooring. Underlayment – is nailed or glued to the subfloor before the finish floor is applied.

22 Installing Utilities Utilities refer to service systems in a building
Electrical systems Plumbing systems (HVAC) Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems

23 Insulation Is material that is applied to walls and ceilings to help keep heat from entering the building in the summer and leaving in the winter. Helps make a house more energy-efficient Insulating materials are labeled according to their R-value. The higher the R-value, the better the insulating qualities.

24 Insulation Forms Batts or Blankets – These are thick fiberglass sheets or rolls, with a paper or foil backing. Designed to fit between framing. Rigid Panels – large sheets of plastic foam or natural fibers. Loose fill – fibrous or granular material that is blown into place using a special hose.

25 Finishing the Interior
Ceilings and Walls – Enclosed with drywall. Drywall is a general term used for plasterboard or wallboard. Floor Coverings – finish flooring is usually installed over the underlayment after the walls and ceilings have been finished. Trim and Other Finish work – Used to cover edges where ceilings, walls, and floors meet.

26 Prefabricated Structures
Components of structures and even whole structures are now being built in factories. The prefabricated parts or sections are shipped from the factory to the construction site. Three Types Panelized Construction Modular Construction Manufacturing Housing

27 Panelized Construction
In Panelized construction, the floors, walls, and roof all consist of prefabricated panels that have been made in factories. Panels are then shipped to the construction site where they are assembled to produce the framed and sheathed shell of the structure.

28 Modular Construction Entire units, or modules, of structures are built at factories and shipped to the site. The modules are assembled at the site to product a finished structure. Has been used to build motels.

29 Manufactured Housing Many new single-family homes are entirely manufacture in factories and then shipped to the site. These homes are built in two or more sections to produce a finished structure. Example - Double wide or trailer

30 Finishing the Site Paving – Several areas around the homes and other buildings need to be paved. Driveways Walk Ways Parking Lots Landscaping – Begins after all the debris from construction has been removed. Changing the natural features to make it more attractive.

31 Review Preparing the site involves clearing away unwanted objects, leveling and smoothing, and laying out the site. The foundation, which supports the superstructure, consists of footings and walls. The superstructure may have a wood or steel frame or may be a load-bearing wall structure.

32 Review Continued Once the structure is framed, it is enclosed, the subfloor is laid, the utilities are roughed in, and insulation is installed. Components of structures and even entire structures may be prefabricated in factories, then shipped to construction sites to be assembled. Finishing the site involves paving and landscaping. Then the project is transferred to the owner.

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