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Floor Systems and Foundation Support

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Presentation on theme: "Floor Systems and Foundation Support"— Presentation transcript:


2 Floor Systems and Foundation Support
Chapter 32 Floor Systems and Foundation Support

3 Links for Chapter 32 Slab Construction Reinforcing Concrete
Crawl Spaces


5 Three Types of Foundations
Types of foundations.  There are three basic types of foundations.  They are: Perimeter.  A perimeter foundation creates a crawl space under the house.  Most perimeter foundations are made of poured concrete or concrete block, although it is not unusual to find brick foundations in older buildings.  Separate piers support girders and other concentrated loads within the perimeter. Slab.  A slab built on grade functions as both the foundation and floor system.  It is an economical type of foundation but can only be built in areas where soil conditions will permit construction.  The slab must have deep footings under all the perimeter and bearing walls, and should always be at least 8 inches above grade. Basement.  A basement foundation has higher walls than a perimeter foundation.  It is built on a footing and has separate footings for support columns.  The basement floor usually consists of a concrete slab poured after the footings and walls are completed.

6 Block Foundation Type

7 Concrete Slab

8 Foundations

9 Wall Section

10 Foundations Images

11 Concrete Slab Foundation

12 Foundation & ½ Wall Section

13 Sources

14 Slab Construction Most foundation floors are concrete slabs
Usually 5” or 6” thick Does not support walls Poured as an extension of the foundation wall and footing

15 Slab Construction Slab joints help control natural expansion and shrinkage of concrete slabs Control joints are cut 6-8 hours after concrete is poured to be sure cracking occurs along the cut Isolation joints separate a slab from another slab, wall, column or other structural part Construction joints are made to support the joint between two slabs

16 Slab Construction

17 Slab Construction Slabs are placed above, below, or at grade level
Above grade slabs are indicated with a note Below grade slabs are used in basements At grade level slabs must be at least 8” above the grade to keep away from moisture

18 Slab Construction Slabs are poured after the footings have been set
At least 4” of sand or gravel fill is placed under the slab Slab fill is given as a note on the plans

19 Reinforcing Concrete To help resist cracking, welded wire fabric is placed in the slab and noted as: 6 X 12—W16 X W8 6 = longitudinal wire spacing 12 = transverse wire spacing 16 = longitudinal wire size 8 = transverse wire size

20 Reinforcing Concrete To help resist cracking, welded wire fabric is placed in the slab and noted as: 6 X 12—W16 X W8 W indicates smooth wire D represents deformed wire

21 Reinforcing Concrete

22 Reinforcing Concrete To resist expansive soil, steel reinforcing bars are added to the slab A 3” minimum coverage is needed if concrete is exposed to earth A 2” minimum coverage is needed in basements A 1 1/2” coverage is needed when concrete is not exposed to earth

23 Reinforcing Concrete Post-tensioning is used when concrete is poured on unstable soil Steel tendons are placed in the concrete as it is poured About 3 to 10 days later the tendons are stretched creating an internal compressive force that helps the concrete resist cracking

24 Reinforcing Concrete Flat slab and ribbed slab are most common forms of post-tensioned concrete Flat slab tendons range from 3/8” to 1/2” and are spaced 5’-0” to 9’-0” apart A ribbed slab uses ribs or beams under the slab to reduce the span of the slab over the soil and increase support

25 Reinforcing Concrete

26 Reinforcing Concrete Slabs are placed on 6 mil polyethylene sheet plastic to protect against ground moisture Depending on the climate, additional rigid insulation is added under the slab Plumbing and heating components are placed under the slab ( fixture kept in Plan)

27 Reinforcing Concrete

28 Reinforcing Concrete Dimensions are added to these components
Outline of slab Interior footing locations Changes in floor level Floor drains Exterior footing locations

29 Crawl Spaces Crawl spaces are at least 18” from bottom of floor and 12” from bottom of joists Floor joists span the foundation walls Usually build from 2 X 6 to 2 X 12 or from engineered lumber Nailed to pressure-treated sill plate or flush to the sill plate

30 Crawl Spaces

31 Crawl Spaces A plywood subfloor is placed on the joists
Girders are used if the joist span distance is too great and are supported by a pier


33 Crawl Spaces

34 Crawl Spaces

35 Crawl Spaces Beams are used instead of joists in post-and-beam construction The subfloor is made of 2 X 6 T & G boards or 1 1/8” plywood Subfloor is glued to the beams Beams are supported by posts if span is too great

36 Crawl Spaces

37 Crawl Spaces If the site is sloped the floor and foundation methods can be combined

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