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Basic Building Construction

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Presentation on theme: "Basic Building Construction"— Presentation transcript:

1 Basic Building Construction
Week 4 Basic Building Construction

2 Objective This chapter discusses basic building construction; building components, how they go together, terminology, and the drawings that show them

3 Introduction The ability to interpret plumbing or mechanical systems drawings will enable you to check If the fixtures and appliances you have specified have been acknowledged If all is in place to receive them Communication with tradespersons will be facilitated if the designer has a working knowledge of construction vocabulary and building parts

4 Introduction (cont’d.)
A building consists of Substructure: everything below grade, or ground Superstructure: everything above grade Structural engineers Design the foundation Determine the size of and distance between all structural components needed to support the building’s stresses and loads

5 The Foundation The base upon which a building is placed
Provides a level surface to build on Forms the basement walls, carries the building’s loads, or weights, and keeps moisture-sensitive materials off the ground to prevent rot and insect infestation Foundation plan: shows walls, footings, grade beams, and pilasters Basement plan: shows these elements plus interior

6 The Foundation (cont’d.)
Figure 7-3 Basement plan. It shows the same information as a foundation plan plus interior spaces.

7 Foundation Terms Concrete: mixture of cement, water, aggregate, and possibly admixtures Aggregate: blend of sand, rock, crushed gravel, and cinder ash Admixture: chemical that makes concrete stronger or more workable Footing: widened bottom of a foundation wall, pier, or column

8 Foundation Terms (cont’d.)
Structural member: carries the weight of other components Beam: horizontal structural member Grade beam: portion of a slab that is thicker than the rest Pier: short post found under buildings, as in crawlspaces or porches

9 Foundation Terms (cont’d.)
Post: vertical, structural member outside a wall that supports beams Column: vertical, structural member outside a wall that supports beams Pilaster: post or column attached to a wall Strengthens the wall where heavy beams will rest

10 Foundation Types Slab-on-grade (monolithic foundation): concrete slab on the ground T (spread footing or perimeter foundation): wall built on top of a footing, which is a wide base Piers and columns: vertical structural members on square footings that support beams Other types: stepped footings, piles, wood, brick, and stone

11 Foundation Types (cont’d.)
Figure 7-8 Pictorial showing grade beam, post, pier, column, foundation wall, and footing.

12 Foundation Materials Cast or poured concrete and concrete block are the materials most commonly used to make foundations Concrete masonry units (CMU): precast item Concrete block: available in different shapes, sizes and weights Typically manufactured in lengths of 16", heights of 8" and widths of 4", 6", 8", 10", and 12”

13 Foundation Materials (cont’d.)
Figure A concrete block wall. It is strengthened with reinforcing bar (rebar) and a bond beam, which is a course of bond blocks.

14 Wood Construction Figure Components of a wood skeleton–framed house

15 Wood Construction Terms
Dimensional lumber: wood used for framing Engineered wood products (EWP): wood veneers and fibers that have been laminated to produce longer-spanning, load-bearing Oriented strand board: wood product made of layers of wood and glue pressed together to create 4' 8' panels

16 Wood Construction Terms (cont’d.)
Beam: umbrella term for a horizontal load-bearing member of wood, steel, and/or concrete Girder: large beam that supports smaller beams Rafter: inclined beam at the roof Joist: horizontal beam in ceilings and floors Lintel: beam over a door or window

17 Wood Construction Terms (cont’d.)
Trussed rafter: fabricated member placed at the roof, consisting of an upper chord, a lower chord, and a web Trussed joist: fabricated member with parallel upper and lower chords Stud: vertical load-bearing member inside a wall Cripples: short studs placed above or below a wall opening

18 Wood Construction Terms (cont’d.)
Figure D and 3-D views of a wood-framed wall.

19 Wood Construction Terms (cont’d.)
Plate: horizontal board Bottom plates evenly distribute loads placed on them Top plates tie studs together Sheathing: vertical covering of boards on exterior walls that goes under the final finish Decking: horizontal covering of boards on the roof or floor

20 Wood Frame Types Post-and-beam Skeleton
Timber framing: oldest framing method and was the method of wood building used throughout the world for 2,000 years Skeleton Balloon Platform

21 Masonry Bond: arrangement of brick or blocks in a wall
Mortar: mixture of cement, sand, and water that hardens used as binding agent Wythe: continuous vertical section of a masonry wall, one unit in thickness

22 Masonry Veneer: non-load bearing, aesthetic masonry facing attached to, and supported by, a structural backing Brick: rectangular mass of clay hardened by heat

23 Masonry (cont’d.) Figure Brick laid in walls. Cavity walls enable the positioning of header bricks.

24 Masonry (cont’d.) Stone: rock or hard mineral matter Glass block
Acrylic block Structural clay tile Terra-cotta Four masonry wall construction types Solid, cavity, faced, and veneer

25 Steel Terms Arch: bent truss
Rigid frame: consists of two columns and a beam or truss Prefabricated components: made into units and assembled at a factory Two types of steel construction Steel skeleton and large-span construction

26 Construction Drawings
Title page or cover sheet Survey Structural discipline drawings Architectural discipline drawings Heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, ventilation (HVAC) and plumbing discipline drawings

27 Summary Buildings are made of wood, steel, and concrete
Components are made on site or fabricated in standardized sizes in factories Techniques and systems have evolved throughout the years in step with technology advancements Understanding buildings’ basic construction is necessary to competently draft drawings that describe them

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