Presentation on theme: "Basic Building Construction"— Presentation transcript:
1 Basic Building Construction Week 4Basic Building Construction
2 ObjectiveThis chapter discusses basic building construction; building components, how they go together, terminology, and the drawings that show them
3 IntroductionThe ability to interpret plumbing or mechanical systems drawings will enable you to checkIf the fixtures and appliances you have specified have been acknowledgedIf all is in place to receive themCommunication with tradespersons will be facilitated if the designer has a working knowledge of construction vocabulary and building parts
4 Introduction (cont’d.) A building consists ofSubstructure: everything below grade, or groundSuperstructure: everything above gradeStructural engineersDesign the foundationDetermine the size of and distance between all structural components needed to support the building’s stresses and loads
5 The Foundation The base upon which a building is placed Provides a level surface to build onForms the basement walls, carries the building’s loads, or weights, and keeps moisture-sensitive materials off the ground to prevent rot and insect infestationFoundation plan: shows walls, footings, grade beams, and pilastersBasement plan: shows these elements plus interior
6 The Foundation (cont’d.) Figure 7-3 Basement plan. It shows the same information as a foundation plan plus interior spaces.
7 Foundation TermsConcrete: mixture of cement, water, aggregate, and possibly admixturesAggregate: blend of sand, rock, crushed gravel, and cinder ashAdmixture: chemical that makes concrete stronger or more workableFooting: widened bottom of a foundation wall, pier, or column
8 Foundation Terms (cont’d.) Structural member: carries the weight of other componentsBeam: horizontal structural memberGrade beam: portion of a slab that is thicker than the restPier: short post found under buildings, as in crawlspaces or porches
9 Foundation Terms (cont’d.) Post: vertical, structural member outside a wall that supports beamsColumn: vertical, structural member outside a wall that supports beamsPilaster: post or column attached to a wallStrengthens the wall where heavy beams will rest
10 Foundation TypesSlab-on-grade (monolithic foundation): concrete slab on the groundT (spread footing or perimeter foundation): wall built on top of a footing, which is a wide basePiers and columns: vertical structural members on square footings that support beamsOther types: stepped footings, piles, wood, brick, and stone
11 Foundation Types (cont’d.) Figure 7-8 Pictorial showing grade beam, post, pier, column, foundation wall, and footing.
12 Foundation MaterialsCast or poured concrete and concrete block are the materials most commonly used to make foundationsConcrete masonry units (CMU): precast itemConcrete block: available in different shapes, sizes and weightsTypically manufactured in lengths of 16", heights of 8" and widths of 4", 6", 8", 10", and 12”
13 Foundation Materials (cont’d.) Figure A concrete block wall. It is strengthened with reinforcing bar (rebar) and a bond beam, which is a course of bond blocks.
14 Wood ConstructionFigure Components of a wood skeleton–framed house
15 Wood Construction Terms Dimensional lumber: wood used for framingEngineered wood products (EWP): wood veneers and fibers that have been laminated to produce longer-spanning, load-bearingOriented strand board: wood product made of layers of wood and glue pressed together to create 4' 8' panels
16 Wood Construction Terms (cont’d.) Beam: umbrella term for a horizontal load-bearing member of wood, steel, and/or concreteGirder: large beam that supports smaller beamsRafter: inclined beam at the roofJoist: horizontal beam in ceilings and floorsLintel: beam over a door or window
17 Wood Construction Terms (cont’d.) Trussed rafter: fabricated member placed at the roof, consisting of an upper chord, a lower chord, and a webTrussed joist: fabricated member with parallel upper and lower chordsStud: vertical load-bearing member inside a wallCripples: short studs placed above or below a wall opening
18 Wood Construction Terms (cont’d.) Figure D and 3-D views of a wood-framed wall.
19 Wood Construction Terms (cont’d.) Plate: horizontal boardBottom plates evenly distribute loads placed on themTop plates tie studs togetherSheathing: vertical covering of boards on exterior walls that goes under the final finishDecking: horizontal covering of boards on the roof or floor
20 Wood Frame Types Post-and-beam Skeleton Timber framing: oldest framing method and was the method of wood building used throughout the world for 2,000 yearsSkeletonBalloonPlatform
21 Masonry Bond: arrangement of brick or blocks in a wall Mortar: mixture of cement, sand, and water that hardens used as binding agentWythe: continuous vertical section of a masonry wall, one unit in thickness
22 MasonryVeneer: non-load bearing, aesthetic masonry facing attached to, and supported by, a structural backingBrick: rectangular mass of clay hardened by heat
23 Masonry (cont’d.)Figure Brick laid in walls. Cavity walls enable the positioning of header bricks.
24 Masonry (cont’d.) Stone: rock or hard mineral matter Glass block Acrylic blockStructural clay tileTerra-cottaFour masonry wall construction typesSolid, cavity, faced, and veneer
25 Steel Terms Arch: bent truss Rigid frame: consists of two columns and a beam or trussPrefabricated components: made into units and assembled at a factoryTwo types of steel constructionSteel skeleton and large-span construction
26 Construction Drawings Title page or cover sheetSurveyStructural discipline drawingsArchitectural discipline drawingsHeating, ventilation, air-conditioning, ventilation (HVAC) and plumbing discipline drawings
27 Summary Buildings are made of wood, steel, and concrete Components are made on site or fabricated in standardized sizes in factoriesTechniques and systems have evolved throughout the years in step with technology advancementsUnderstanding buildings’ basic construction is necessary to competently draft drawings that describe them