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“What pleases the prince has the force of law.”

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Presentation on theme: "“What pleases the prince has the force of law.”"— Presentation transcript:

1 “What pleases the prince has the force of law.”
Justinian Code

2 New Monarchies after 1450 100 Years’ War weakened monarchs
Monarchy was the one institution that could unite nations European governments began to reconstruct themselves Beginnings of the modern state

3 Wealthy middle class merchants and bankers purchased government offices and titles to form a new administrative class Kings partially excluded nobles from power Kings built new bureaucracies and armies

4 France Charles VII… A) Expelled the English from France by 1453
B) Levied new taxes C) approved the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges D) created a standing army

5 Louis XI… A) continued military centralization at the expense of the nobility B) supported economic growth and diversification C) expanded the French state

6 Charles VII Louis XI

7 England

8 And here I prophesy: this brawl today, Grown to this faction in the Temple garden, Shall send, between the Red Rose and the White, A thousand souls to death and deadly night."   — Warwick, Henry VI, Part One

9 Battle of Bosworth Field (1485)
War of the Roses

10 Henry VII… A) did not rely on Parliament to raise revenue B) established a royal council C) effectively used the Court of the Star Chamber to deal with political enemies D) used Justices of the Peace to maintain order at the local level

11 Marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castille

12 Spain Faced the challenge of disunity
Even marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella failed to unite the country Hermandades kept local order Royal Council would bolster the power of the crown

13 “Catholic Kings of Spain” could establish a national church
Reconquista was completed in 1492 Inquisition was established to ensure religious conformity Jews would be purged Spain only achieved unification in 1580

14 Holy Roman Empire NOT a new monarchy! Real power held by the nobles  decentralized state Charles V elected 1519 Grandson of Isabella and Ferdinand, was already King of Spain Also controlled the Netherlands, parts of Italy, New World and Pacific colonies

15 Holy Roman Empire in 1580

16 Northern Humanism

17 Northern Humanists Called for a return of the apostolic church
Focused on writings of the early church Pushed for new translations that were error free Stressed Greek and Hebrew, to be able to read the originals themselves

18 Moveable Type Printing Press
Invented 1453, Johannes Gutenberg

19 Humanism in Germany Many large cities and universities
Close proximity to Italy encouraged travelers between them Pro-German in outlook Famous humanists: Peter Luder, Rudolf Agricola, Conrad Celtis, Mutian

20 French Humanism King Francis I patronized humanists
Royal library ( Bibliothèque Nationale) founded Trilingual (Hebrew, Greek, Latin) college founded to study sacred languages

21 French Humanism Guillaume Budé top classical scholar of France
Jacques Lefèvre d’Etaples especially interested in religious reform

22 Humanism in the Netherlands
Lay people live together and practice lay piety – Bretheren of the Common Life Set up humanist schools

23 Desiderius Erasmus

24 Erasmus “ Prince of Humanists”
Called for religious reform through a return to the apostolic church and reading of the church classics Translated many church classics Works include Praise of Folly and Julius Excluded

25 Humanism in England John Colet was critical of church abuses
Sir Thomas More’s Utopia

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