Presentation on theme: "Thanks for the memories Functional aspects of memory Richard Fielding Department of Community Medicine HKU."— Presentation transcript:
Thanks for the memories Functional aspects of memory Richard Fielding Department of Community Medicine HKU
Outline Learning objectives Memory concepts Levels of processing Storage: maintaining information Retrieval Forgetting Memory breakdown Improving memory Conclusions
Learning objectives Outline the main performance characteristics of sensory or peripheral registers Outline the main components and features of working (short-term) memory (STM) Outline the main features of long term memory (LTM) and describe at least three components of LTM Define encoding and stimulus organization influences on LTM Give common reasons for “forgetting”.
Memory concepts Functionally, memory has three stages: ENCODING STORAGERETRIEVAL “Early” versus “late” selection of input. Available attentional capacity is determining criteria for input selection stage. Levels of processing: sensory, shallow, intermediate, deep.
Levels of processing Sensory encoding - most superficial: sensory stores “buffer” registers; 200ms. Eidetic; echoic registers. Attentional theory of remembering. –Structural encoding –Phonemic encoding –Semantic encoding
Storage: maintaining information Information-processing models of memory input Sensory store attention rehearsal Short-term (Working) memory storageretrieval Long-term memory
Storage in LTM Rehearsal of data in STM facilitates transfer to LTM - (maintenance versus elaborative) Primacy and recency effects (first and last information preferentially stored) Organization: if data not organized in LTM, impossible to find anything: clustering, concept hierarchies, semantic networks, schemas/scripts.
Retrieval Recall a function of memory strength: –weak, strong, weak consistent pattern of recall. Use of retrieval cues: –tip-of-the-tongue phenomena = retrieval failure –cues, such as first letter, aid recall of words. –Event contexts: (crime scene reconstructions) –mood: “state-dependent memory” vs. mood congruence –“reconstructive” memory
Forgetting Forgetting is rapid for meaningless data ~35% retention after 1 day. Why? –Ineffective encoding –Trace decay –Interference (retroactive / pro-active) –Retrieval failure.
Memory breakdown Amnesia - memory loss. –Retrograde amnesia: loss of memories for events prior to injury –Anterograde amnesia: loss of memories for events following injury. Do not confuse loss of content storage/ recall with loss of ability to follow procedure. Implicit memory (retention when remembering not intended), mostly unaffected by amnesia. Suggests different memory systems involved. Declarative (fact) vs. Procedural (skill) memory
Improving memory Adequate rehearsal Distributed practice Minimize interference Use deep processing Emphasize transfer-appropriate processing Enrich encoding with verbal mnemonics Enrich encoding with visual imagery Organize information
Conclusions Memory processes extensive and complex Numerous systems for memory and “types” of memory Memory is not perfect recall, it is partially reconstructive Relevance to medical practice in obtaining history from patients and giving information to patients.