2 What is MEMORY? Definition – internal record of some prior event or experience- set of mental processes thatreceives, encodes, stores,organizes, alters, andretrieves information over time
3 Kinds of Memory Episodic Memory: memory of a specific event event is “etched” in mindExample day you got marriedSemantic Memory:factual informationdo not remember when we learned itExample learning your ABC’sImplicit Memory:skills or techniques learnedonce learned, stay with youfor years to comeExample how to ride a bike
4 Flashbulb Memories Definition – memory of a significant event which has emotional ties to it- can remember it like “it was yesterday”Where were you when you first heard:That JFK was shot and killed?That The WTC had been crashed into?That the Browns won the Super Bowl?
5 Three Stages of Memory Stage 1 - Sensory Memory - brief representation of astimulus while beingprocessed in the senses- iconic (eyes/snapshots)- eidetic (eyes/photographic)- echoic (ears/sounds)Stage 2 - Short-Term Memory (STM)- is working memory- limited capacity (7 items)- duration is about 30 secondsStage 3 - Long-Term Memory (LTM)- large in capacity- long duration
7 Integrated Model Concepts Three Processes of MemoryIntegrated Model ConceptsEncoding – process of translating info into neural codes (language) that will be retained in memoryStorage – the process of retaining neural coded info over timeRetrieval – the process of recovering info from memory storage
9 Organization of Memory Retrieval Cue – a clue or prompt that helps stimulate recall and retrieval of a stored piece of information from long-term memoryTwo Types:1. Recognition ability to recognize previouslyencountered items/experiences2. Recall ability to remember information ofexperiences
10 Memory MeasuresRecognition is when a specific cue (face or name) is matched against LTMRecall is when a general cue is used to search memoryRelearning - situation where person learns material a second time.Quicker to learn material 2nd time
11 Tip-of the Tongue Phenomenon: - person can’t easily recall the item, but shows some recall for its characteristics (“…it begins with the letter ….”)
12 Anatomy of MemoryAmygdala: located in temporal lobe & associated with memory, emotions, & aggressionBasal Ganglia & Cerebellum: memory for skills, habits and Classical Conditioned responsesHippocampus: memory recognition, spatial, episodic memory, long-term memoriesThalamus: formation of new memories and working memoriesCortical Areas: encoding of facts, storage of episodic/semantic memories, skill learning, priming.
13 Forgetting Definition: the inability to recall previously learned information- Forgetting rate is steep just after learning and then becomes a gradual loss of recall
14 Theories of Forgetting Proactive Interference:- old information interferesw/recall of new informationRetroactive Interference:new information interfereswith recall of oldDecay Theory:- memory trace fades w/timeMotivated Forgetting:-involves loss of painful memories (protective memory loss)Retrieval Failure:information is still within LTM,but cannot be recalled becauseretrieval cue is absent
15 Serial Position Effect Recall several hoursafter learningRecall immediatelyafter learningLTMRecall from Recall fromLTM STMPrimacy Effect – remembering stuff at beginning of list better than middleRecency Effect – remembering stuff at the end of list better than middle
16 Distributed practice leads to better retention Study StrategiesDistributed Practice:- refers to spacinglearning periodsMassed Practice:- refers to learningthat is “crammed”into a single sessionVS.Distributed practice leads to better retention
17 Memory Strategies Mnemonic Devices: - strategies to improve memory by organizing informationMethod of Loci: ideas are associated witha place or part of abuildingPeg-Word system: peg words associatedwith ideas(e.g. “one is a bun”)Word Associations: verbal associations arecreated for items to belearned
18 Amnesia Definition: forgetting produced by brain injury or by trauma Two Types:Retrograde Amnesia: problems with recall of information prior to a traumaAnterograde Amnesia: problems with recall of information after a traumaAnterograde AmnesiaRetrograde AmnesiaPoint of Trauma
19 Issues in Memory Reasons for inaccuracy of memory: Source Amnesia: attribution of a memory to the wrong source (e.g. a dream is recalled as an actual event)Sleeper Effect: a piece of information from an unreliable source is initially discounted, but is recalled after the source has been forgottenMisinformation Effect: we incorporate outside information into our own memories