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Introduction to Psychology Human Memory. Lecture Outline 1)Encoding 2)Storage 3)Retrieval and Forgetting 4)Multiple memory systems.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Psychology Human Memory. Lecture Outline 1)Encoding 2)Storage 3)Retrieval and Forgetting 4)Multiple memory systems."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Psychology Human Memory

2 Lecture Outline 1)Encoding 2)Storage 3)Retrieval and Forgetting 4)Multiple memory systems

3 Memory Memory is the process by which we observe, store, and recall information –Memories may be visual, auditory, or tactile Memory processes may involve multiple systems –Conscious –Automatic

4 Encoding Attention: - Spotlight analogy Sensory detection Recognition of meaning Response selection

5 Levels of Processing Shallow processing - structural encoding (capital letters, what color, etc…) Intermediate processing - phonemic encoding (rhyming, homonyms, etc…) Deep processing - semantic encoding (meaning or symbolism)

6 Facilitating Encoding Elaboration Visual Imagery Self Referential Encoding Rehearsal and Over-learning Deep and Transfer Appropriate processing Distributed practice Organize information

7 Mnemonic Devices Verbal mnemonics: - acrostics, acronyms, and rhymes Visual mnemonics: -link method, method of loci, keyword -SQ3R

8 Encoding Specificity Encoding specificity principle: Idea that ease of retrieval of a memory depends on match of encoding with retrieval –Poor recall if shallow learning is examined using a deep processing technique Student who reads multiple choice items in test book and then takes an essay exam will likely not do very well State-dependent memory

9 2. Storage Assumes that memory consists of 3 stores: –Sensory registers Iconic (visual) Echoic (auditory) –Short-term memory (STM) –Long-term memory (LTM) © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

10 The Information Processing Model of Memory

11 Characteristics of STM STM is a variant of memory that is of limited duration: –Information in STM fades after 20-30 seconds (without rehearsal) STM has limited capacity storage –STM capacity is about 7 items of information Capacity is constant across cultures STM Involves rehearsal –Maintenance: information is repeated –Elaborative: information is related to other knowledge

12 Working Memory Working memory is temporary storage and processing of information used to –solve problems –respond to environmental demands –achieve goals Working memory may consist of three modules –Visual Memory Store –Verbal Memory Store –Central Executive

13 Working Memory Stores Visual memory store –A temporary image (20-30 sec) that provides information about the location and nature of objects Verbal memory store –Involves storage of verbal items Limited capacity Shallow: Items are processed in order of presentation and are subject to interference Working memory stores are independent –Brain damage may alter visual but not verbal

14 LTM LTM refers to the representations of facts, images, actions, and skills that may persist over a lifetime LTM involves retrieval of information LTM is theoretically limitless in capacity The serial position curve supports the existence of STM versus LTM –Primacy effect reflects LTM –Recency effect reflects STM

15 The Serial Position Curve (Figure adapted from Atkinson & Shriffrin, 1968) Recalled from LTM Recalled from STM

16 Working Memory and LTM Evidence supporting a distinction between working memory and LTM –Working memory is easily accessed, but is limited in capacity –Neurological studies in which brain damage impairs memory LTM impairment: person shows normal working memory, but cannot transfer information to LTM Working memory deficit: person has a memory span of 2 digits, but normal LTM –Chunking: LTM information is used to increase item size in working memory (e.g. IBM, USC, CIA)

17 Functional Aspects of Memory Recall for information may be a function of our interest in the information: –Men show better recall for workbench construction details than details on how to make a shirt…

18 Networks of Association LTM is organized in clusters of information that are related in meaning –The network is composed of interconnected nodes –A node may contain thoughts, images, smells, emotions, or any other information –Mnemonic devices allow one to add concepts to existing networks

19 An Example of Interconnected Nodes

20 Varieties of LTM Declarative memory –Semantic: “generic” knowledge of facts –Episodic: memories of specific events Autobiographical Procedural memory: for skills Explicit memory: Conscious retrieval of information –Recall versus recognition Implicit memory: Skills, conditioned learning, and associative memory

21 Repressed Memories Retrieval failures Motivated forgetting Denial Repression Psychogenic amnesia False Memory Syndrome

22 “Seven Sins of Memory” Memories are transient (fade with time) We do not remember what we do not pay attention to Our memories can be temporarily blocked We can misattribute the source of memory We are suggestible in our memories We can show memory distortion (bias) We often fail to forget the things we would like not to recall (persistence of memory)

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