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Chapter 8: Human Memory. Human Memory: Basic Questions How does information get into memory? How is information maintained in memory? How is information.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8: Human Memory. Human Memory: Basic Questions How does information get into memory? How is information maintained in memory? How is information."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8: Human Memory

2 Human Memory: Basic Questions How does information get into memory? How is information maintained in memory? How is information pulled back out of memory?

3 Figure 7.2 Three key processes in memory

4 Encoding: Getting Information Into Memory The role of attention Focusing awareness Selective attention = selection of input –Filtering: early or late?

5 Figure 7.3 Models of selective attention

6 Levels of Processing: Craik and Lockhart (1972) Incoming information processed at different levels Deeper processing = longer lasting memory codes Encoding levels: –Structural = shallow –Phonemic = intermediate –Semantic = deep

7 Figure 7.4 Levels-of-processing theory

8 Figure 7.5 Retention at three levels of processing

9 Enriching Encoding: Improving Memory Elaboration = linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding –Thinking of examples Visual Imagery = creation of visual images to represent words to be remembered –Easier for concrete objects: Dual-coding theory Self-Referent Encoding –Making information personally meaningful

10 Storage: Maintaining Information in Memory Analogy: information storage in computers ~ information storage in human memory Information-processing theories –Subdivide memory into 3 different stores Sensory, Short-term, Long-term Atkinson and Shiffrin

11 Figure 7.7 The Atkinson and Schiffrin model of memory storage

12 Sensory Memory Brief preservation of information in original sensory form Auditory/Visual – approximately ¼ second George Sperling (1960) Classic experiment on visual sensory store

13 Figure 7.8 Sperling’s (1960) study of sensory memory

14 Short Term Memory (STM) Limited capacity – magical number 7 plus or minus 2 –Chunking – grouping familiar stimuli for storage as a single unit Limited duration – about 20 seconds without rehearsal –Rehearsal – the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information

15 Figure 7.9 Peterson and Peterson’s (1959) study of short-term memory

16 Short-Term Memory as “Working Memory” STM not limited to phonemic encoding Loss of information not only due to decay Baddeley (1986) – 3 components of working memory –Phonological rehearsal loop –Visuospatial sketchpad –Executive control system

17 Long-Term Memory: Unlimited Capacity Permanent storage? –Flashbulb memories –Recall through hypnosis Debate: are STM and LTM really different? –Phonemic vs. Semantic encoding –Decay vs. Interference based forgetting

18 How is Knowledge Represented and Organized in Memory? Clustering and Conceptual Hierarchies Schemas and Scripts Semantic Networks Connectionist Networks and PDP Models

19 Retrieval: Getting Information Out of Memory The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon – a failure in retrieval –Retrieval cues Recalling an event –Context cues Reconstructing memories –Misinformation effect Source monitoring, reality monitoring

20 Forgetting: When Memory Lapses Retention – the proportion of material retained –Recall –Recognition –Relearning Ebbinghaus’s Forgetting Curve

21 Figure 7.16 Ebbinghaus’ forgetting curve for nonsense syllables

22 Figure 7.17 Recognition versus recall in the measurement of retention

23 Why Do We Forget? Ineffective Encoding Decay theory Interference theory –Proactive –Retroactive

24 Figure 7.19 Retroactive and proactive interference

25 Figure 7.20 Estimates of the prevalence of childhood physical and sexual abuse

26 Retrieval Failure Encoding Specificity The encoding specificity principle holds that the effectiveness of a retrieval cue depends on how well it corresponds to the memory code that represents the stored item…the closer a retrieval cue is to the way we encode the info, the better we are able to remember. Transfer-Appropriate Processing The transfer-appropriate processing theory holds that when the initial processing of information is similar to the type of processing required by the subsequent measure of retention, retrieval is easier. Repression –Authenticity of repressed memories? –Memory illusions –Controversy

27 Figure 7.22 The prevalence of false memories observed by Roediger and McDermott (1995)

28 The Physiology of Memory Biochemistry –Alteration in synaptic transmission Hormones modulating neurotransmitter systems Protein synthesis Neural circuitry –Localized neural circuits Reusable pathways in the brain Long-term potentiation

29 The Physiology of Memory Anatomy –Anterograde and Retrograde Amnesia Cerebral cortex, Prefrontal cortex, Hippocampus, Dentate gyrus, Amygdala, Cerebellum

30 Figure 7.23 The anatomy of memory

31 Figure 7.25 Retrograde versus anterograde amnesia

32 Are There Multiple Memory Systems? Declarative vs. Procedural Semantic vs. Episodic Prospective vs. Retrospective

33 Figure 7.26 Theories of independent memory systems

34 Improving Everyday Memory Engage in adequate rehearsal Distribute practice and minimize interference Emphasize deep processing and transfer- appropriate processing Organize information Use verbal mnemonics Use visual mnemonics

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