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The High and Late Middle Ages

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Presentation on theme: "The High and Late Middle Ages"— Presentation transcript:

1 The High and Late Middle Ages

2 Monarchs, Nobles, and the Church
the balance of power shifts Monarchs centralized power; expand their domains at expense of the Church Supported by townspeople who wanted peace for trade

3 William of Normandy William conquers England; King (1066)
Fiefs and taxes Common law and trial by jury By 1154 Henry II has serious conflict with church over legal authority 1170 Thomas Becket, archbishop is assassinated Battle of Hastings, 1066

4 Evolving Systems of Government
John angers the Church and his own nobles 1215 the nobles force him to sign the Magna Carta Gives nobles rights; due process given to all citizens King subject to the law King has a council of advisors; can’t tax arbitrarily

5 Parliament 1200s the Great Council becomes Parliament
This becomes England’s legislature House of Lords House of Commons Power of the Purse; the right to approve any new taxes

6 Monarchs in France In 1179 Phillip II becomes King of France
Loyalty, taxes, expansion make him most powerful ruler in Europe His grandson Louis IV clashes with the pope Schism; Avignon Estes General

7 The Holy Roman Empire After Charlemagne’s death empire broke up
936 Otto I becomes King of Germany Close ties to Pope 962 crowned Emperor Claim control of central and eastern Europe

8 Pope Versus Emperor 1054 Henry IV King of Germany; Holy Roman Emperor
Gregory VII Pope Fight over lay investiture Excommunication; rebellion; exile 1122 The Concordat of Worms

9 The Struggle for Italy 1100-1200 German emperors try to control Italy
Frederick I tries to take Italy He’s defeated but clashes with several popes While he’s in Italy his nobles get more independent

10 Church Power at its Height
1198 Innocent III Claims authority over all earthly rulers 1209 launches a holy war against French heretics; Crusade; tens of thousands slaughtered Extends Papal Sates and power

11 The Crusades Europe in isolation
Brilliant civilizations in India, Asia, Africa and the Middle East Especially the Muslim Series of wars begun in 1096 Christians battle Muslims for control of the Holy Land Lasts for 200 years

12 The Call to Crusade Seljuk Turks (Muslim) overrun Middle East
The Byzantine Emperor asks Pope Urban II for help At the Council of Clermont Urban makes the call Urban hopes to increase his power and heal the Schism

13 Massacre Only the First Crusade is successful Crusader States
These are overrun causing more Crusades 1187 Jerusalem falls to Saladin 1291 Muslims overrun the Crusader States

14 Economic Impact of the Crusades
Religious hatred European economies expand; trade routes open to move luxury items from the Byzantine Empire Venetians build huge fleets Growth of money economy

15 Effects on Monarchs and Church
Increases power of the Monarchs Collect taxes to support Crusades Papal power reaches its height Contact with the Muslim world opened the world to Europeans through trade and exploration

16 Jews Being Expelled from Spain
The Reconquista The campaign to drive the Muslims from the Iberian Peninsula 1085 Christians retake Toledo 1300 Christians control peninsula except for Grenada 1469 Ferdinand and Isabella marry Jews Being Expelled from Spain

17 Education As economic and political conditions improve there is a need for educated people 1100s sees schools and cathedrals to train clergy Women couldn’t attend universities but could go to convents

18 New Learning Greek and Roman knowledge lost to Europe
Muslim scholars had translated it 1100s these reach Europe Creates crisis of faith versus logic Thomas Aquinas

19 Medieval Culture Literature; epics and the Divine Comedy
The Canterbury Tales Architecture and art Romanesque to Gothic Stone; glass; Notre Dame Cathedral The North Rose Window

20 Notre Dame Cathedral

21 The Black Death 1347 trading ships dock at Messina; bring Black Death
By 1348 reached Spain and France Bubonic Plague; spreads to Asia Epidemic set off by Mongol invasions in the 1200s

22 Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411)
Effects of the Plague Normal life breaks down; terror, bodies, people flee cities Jews are blamed and persecuted Economy suffers; inflation Church splits; The Great Schism Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411)

23 The Hundred Years War France and England engage in a series of conflicts English win early victories Joan of Arc fights for France War creates sense of nationalism in France; Absolute monarchs England sees rise of Parliament

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