Presentation on theme: "In the Late Middle Ages. England William the Conqueror, leader of the Norman Conquest, conquered and united most of England. William the Conqueror Battle."— Presentation transcript:
England William the Conqueror, leader of the Norman Conquest, conquered and united most of England. William the Conqueror Battle of Hastings marked beginning of Norman rule of England Common law had its beginnings during the reign of Henry II. King John signed the Magna Carta, limiting the King’s power. 1. It asserted that the nobles had certain rights 2. It made it clear that the monarch must obey the law King Edward summons the first Parliament
France Hugh Capet established the French throne in Paris, and his dynasty gradually expanded their control over most of France.
The Hundred Years War Time – 1337-1453 A.D. Location - France and the Low CountriesFranceLow Countries Reason – Two kings claimed to be King of France Key Players Joan of Arc, French peasant Henry V – England Charles VII – France Phillip IV – France
The Hundred Years War Results French victory Raised nationalism and patriotism in England – we don’t want to be French anymore France – keep those stinkin’ English out of our country French King strengthened English King weakened Decline of knights and mounted cavalry Longbow Standing armies begin to replace knights as military force
Spain Ferdinand and Isabella unified the country (finished the Reconquista) and expelled Muslim Moors (1492) and later the Jews. Spanish Empire in the Western Hemisphere expanded under Philip II. The Inquisition To eliminate heresy
Mongol Armies Invaded Russia, China and Muslim states in southwest Asia, destroying cities and countryside Created an Empire
Russia Ivan the Great threw off the rule of the Mongols, centralized power in Moscow, and expanded the Russian nation. Power was centralized in the hands of the tsar. The Eastern Orthodox Church influenced unification.
Why Called? To recapture lands conquered by Muslims To protect Christians in the Holy Land
Key Events The capture of Jerusalem by Muslim armies, 638 A.D. Pope Urban II’s speech, 1095 A.D. Capture of Jerusalem by Crusaders, 1099 A.D. Founding of Crusader states, 1099-1291 A.D. Loss of Jerusalem to Saladin, 1187 A.D. Sack of Constantinople by western Crusaders, 1204 A.D.
Effects Weakened the Pope and nobles; strengthened monarchs Stimulated trade throughout the Mediterranean area and the Middle East Left a legacy of bitterness among Christians, Jews, and Muslims Weakened the Byzantine Empire Prevented Muslim conquest of Europe Christians didn’t gain ultimate control of Holy Lands
Constantinople Fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, ending the Byzantine Empire Became the capital of the Ottoman Empire
Impact Decline in population Scarcity of labor Towns freed from feudal obligations Decline of church influence Disruption of Trade
Church Scholars Were among the very few who could read and write Worked in monasteries Translated Greek and Arabic works into Latin Made new knowledge in philosophy, medicine, and science available in Europe Laid the foundation for the rise of universities in Europe
The Decline of the Catholic Church Common Problems Clergy marrying Simony Control of church offices by nobles and kings Who is more powerful? Pope or King? Pope Boniface VII vs. King Phillip IV Pope said he was “absolutely necessary for the salvation of every human creature.” Phillip had Boniface arrested; Pope died shortly after
The Great Schism of the Catholic Church 1305 – new pope elected (Clement V) He moved pope’s HQs to Avignon, France 1378 – Pope Urban VI elected (Italian) 1379 – French elect their own pope (Clement VII) 1414 – Council of Constance called to resolve problem They get rid of both Elect another Now THREE popes! 1417 – Another council got rid of all three Ended controversy
Gothic Architecture Style of Building Characteristics Stained Glass Flying Buttress Pointed Arches Ribbed Vaults