2 Preview QuestionsHow did monarchs gain power over nobles and the Church?What traditions of government developed under John and later English monarchs?How did strong monarchs succeed in unifying France?
3 Monarchs, Nobles, and the Church Nobles and the Church each had their own land, taxes, and courts.Monarchs attempted to gain power by:Centralizing the governmentGaining support from the middle class
4 Strong Monarchs in England The Norman Conquest (1066)William of Normandy defeated Harold at the Battle of Hastings to become King of EnglandResulted in a blending of Anglo-Saxon and Norman cultures.
5 Strong Monarchs in England Growth of Royal PowerWilliam made nobles swear loyalty to him above all other lords.The Domesday Book was a census used for tax purposesThe royal treasury, called an exchequer, grew
6 Strong Monarchs in England A Unified Legal SystemHenry II established common lawBased on customs and royal court rulingsApplied to all of EnglandUndermined power of nobles and ChurchUsed juries
7 Strong Monarchs in England Conflict with the ChurchArchbishop Thomas Becket didn’t support Henry II’s attempt to try clergy in royal courtKnights assassinated Becket, who was honored as a martyrHenry II eased attempts to regulate the clergy
8 Evolving Traditions of English Government King John IOppressive and cruel rulerLost English lands to French King Phillip IIExcommunicated by Pope Innocent IIIMagna Carta (1215)English nobles force John to sign this to affirm their rightsMain Idea: No one, even the king, is above the law
9 Evolving Traditions of English Government Development of ParliamentEngland’s legislatureContains a House of Lords and a House of CommonsMost important power = power to approve taxes
10 Successful Monarchs in France The CapetiansHugh Capet was chosen as King of France in 987He increased the power of the monarchyHereditary rulePitted nobles against each otherGained support of Church and middle classEstablished strong bureaucracy
11 Successful Monarchs in France Philip AugustusGave royal jobs to middle class members who were paidExpanded landholdings of the monarchyLouis IXModel rulerMade a saint
12 Successful Monarchs in France Philip IVClashed with Pope Boniface over taxing clergyArrested the pope – he later diedNew pope was a Frenchman who moved the papacy to AvignonThe Estates GeneralRepresentative body from nobles, clergy, and townspeopleHad less power than English Parliament