2 Preview QuestionsWhat advanced civilizations flourished around the world in 1050?What were the causes and effects of the Crusades?How did Christians in Spain carry out the Reconquista?
3 The World in 1050 The world outside of Europe is thriving The Seljuk Turks begin their invasion of the Byzantine Empire, capturing it in 1071Holy Land under Muslim controlMuslims attack Christian pilgrims
4 The CrusadesPope Urban II issues a call for Christians to reclaim the Holy Land from Muslim controlMotives:Religious zealWealth and landAdventure
5 The Crusades Victories and Defeats: First Crusade (1099) Christians capture Jerusalem and massacre Muslims and JewsCrusaders divide land into 4 small statesSecond Crusade (1187)Muslims recapture Jerusalem
6 The Crusades Victory and Defeat Third Crusade Fourth Crusade Muslims, led by Saladin, retain control of JerusalemJerusalem was open to ChristiansFourth CrusadeChristians fight Byzantine merchantsTraders capture and loot Constantinople in 1204
7 Effects of Crusades on Europe Economic ExpansionNew goods introduced to EuropeIncreased trade with Middle EastStrengthening of the money economyIncreased Power for MonarchsRulers have increased power to collect taxes for CrusadesSome rulers fight in Crusades, increasing their prestigeKing Richard I of England, who led the Third Crusade
8 Effects of the Crusades on Europe The ChurchPapacy reaches all-time height of powerNo reconciliation between Eastern and Western ChurchesA Wider WorldviewEuropeans curious about new landsMarco Polo travels to ChinaNew desire for explorationMap of Marco Polo’s Journey
9 The Reconquista in Spain Reconquista: Spanish attempt to drive Muslims from Spain.King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella Leading Reconquistadors
10 The Reconquista in Spain Ferdinand and IsabellaDetermined to bring political and religious unity to SpainEnd religious tolerationUse Inquisition to launch crusade against Muslims and JewsChristian Reconquistadors Fight Muslims in Spain.