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Chapter 9 Nutrition and Diets.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 Nutrition and Diets."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9 Nutrition and Diets

2 9:1 Fundamentals of Nutrition
Most people know there is a fundamental relationship between food and good health Many do not know what nutrients are needed Many are not able to choose proper foods for optimum health

3 Fundamentals of Nutrition (continued)
Nutrition: all body processes relating to food Nutritional status: state or condition of one’s nutrition Role of nutrition in physical, mental, emotional, and psychological affects

4 Effects of Good Nutrition
Healthy appearance Good attitude Proper sleep and bowel habits High energy level Enthusiasm and freedom from anxiety

5 Effects of Poor Nutrition
Diseases or conditions prevented or delayed through good nutrition Hypertension – HBP caused by excess amount of fat or salt Atherosclerosis – narrowing of the arteries caused by accumulation of fat in the inner surface – High diet of saturated fats Osteoporosis – porous (weak) bones – caused by loss of calcium, magnesium or vitamin D Malnutrition – poor nutrition caused by poor diet or illness. Lead to fatigue, depression, poor posture, poor complexion, lifeless hair, irritability, tooth loss poor complexion, lifeless hair, irritability reduced mental abilities, death– Over or under weight.

6 9:2 Essential Nutrients Chemical elements are found in food
Used by the body to perform many different body functions Nutrients are divided into six groups Carbohydrates Lipids (fats and oils) Proteins Vitamins Minerals Water

7 Carbohydrates Carbs – major source of readily usable energy
Quicker source of energy than proteins & fats Also provide heat Also called starches & sugars Bread, cereal, pasta, potatoes, corn, beans, grains, fruit , sugar & syrups Cellulose – aka fiber – it is indigestible Provides bulk in the digestive tract and causes regular bowel movements

8 Lipids , Fats & Oils Triglycerides – Fats & fatty acids
Phospholipids – (lecithin) Sterols (cholesterol) Most concentrated form of stored energy but harder to use than carbs, temperature insulation, cushion organs & bones, aid in absorption of fat- soluable vitamins Butter, oils, cream, fatty meat, cheeses, egg yolk.

9 Cholesterol Sterol lipid found in the body cells and animal products Used to produce 1. Steroid hormones – communication to growth, development and reproduction and emotion 2. Vitamin D – Used in calcium absorption 3. Bile acids – Used in digestion of fat High amounts lead to plaque buildup aka atherosclerosis then HBP, Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack), Stroke (loss of O2 to the brain)

10 Lipids , Fats & Oils Saturated – solid at room temp
Bad kind. Meat, eggs, whole milk, butter, cheese Unsaturated or poly – soft or oily at room temp Better fats. Veg oil, fish, peanuts HDL – High Density Lipoprotein – Good LDL – Low Density Lipoprotein – Bad Both are carrier molecules for cholesterol

11 Proteins Building & repairing tissue also regulate body functions & provide energy & heat 22 Building Blocks called Amino Acids 9 of these essential to life Meat, fish, milk cheese & eggs – Complete Beans, peas, nuts & corn - Incomplete

12 Vitamins Organic compound essential to life Metabolism, tissue building, regulation of body processes & Allows the body to use energy from food Too little or too much can cause poor health Water-Soluble – Dissolve in water Fat Soluble -Dissolve in Fats

13 Vitamins Fat Soluble Vitamins
Vitamin A – Growth, Development, Healthy Eyes Vitamin D – Growth, regulates calcium & phosphorus absorption & metabolism Vitamin E – Protection of cell structure Vitamin K – Normal clotting of blood

14 Vitamins Water- Soluble Vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 – Metabolism,
Niacin – Metabolism, Healthy Skin, nerves & digestive tract Vitamin C – Healthy gums, formation of collagen, aids in healing, aids in absorption of Iron. Folic Acid – Protein metabolism, mature red blood cells, formation of hemoglobin, synthesis of DNA.

15 Special Vitamins Antioxidants – protect the body from Free Radicals – charged particles formed oxygen being used for metabolism that cause cell, tissue or DNA damage

16 Minerals Inorganic elements that aid the body Regulate body fluids
Assist in body functions Contribute to growth Aid in building tissues

17 Minerals Calcium – Bones, Heart, Muscle function
Phosphorus – Acid – Base Balance Magnesium – Red Blood cells, muscles & nerves Sodium – Fluid Balance, Glucose absorption Potassium – Regular Heart rhythm & contraction of muscles Iron – Formation of Hemoglobin in Red Blood Cells

18 Water Solvent of Life Essential for digestion
Makes up most of blood plasma Cytoplasm of Cells Helps body tissues absorb nutrients Moves waste material thru the body Need to drink 6-8 glasses per day

19 9:3 Utilization of Nutrients
Digestion – Process of breaking down food into smaller parts Mechanical Chemical Absorption – nutrients travel via blood into cells of the body Metabolism – nutrients being used Excretion – Get rid of waste Peristalsis – rhythmic wavelike motion of muscles used to move food along

20 Digestion Mouth – physical breaking down food
Salivary Glands- chemical breaking down food Esophagus – move food along Stomach – Hydrochloric Acid breaks down protein Liver – Produces Bile (used to break down fat) Gallbladder – Stores and Concentrates bile Pancreas – relapses enzymes, break down compounds Small Intestine Absorbs most nutrients for the body Large Intestine – Absorbs water, nutrients, excretion

21 9:4 Maintenance of Good Nutrition
Good nutrition is the best way of achieving and maintaining good health Balanced diet/My Pyramid (See Figure in text pg. 267) If food is not appealing, people will not eat it even if it is healthy; consider variety, taste, color, aroma, texture, and general likes and dislikes

22 Guidelines for Good Eating Habits
For a 2000 calorie diet. (recommended for most people) A Variety of foods (See Table 9-4 in text) of the Pyramid + Exercise (continues)

23 Guidelines for Good Eating Habits
1. Find a balance between food and all physical activity 2. Limit fats, saturated fat, and cholesterol 3. Nutritionally rich foods 4. Don’t sugarcoat it 5. Reduce salt 6. Choose foods high in potassium 7. Check food labels and calculate 8. Remember that alcohol can be harmful to your health

24 Food Habits Affect Nutrition
Habits can be based on cultural or religious beliefs Unusual habits are not necessarily bad; must be evaluated Suggesting changes takes tact, patience, and imagination Difficult to change since most are formed in childhood; change takes place over time

25 9:5 Weight Management Weight in relation to height for
Males First 5 feet 106 lbs. then 6 lbs. per every 1 inch Females – 5 feet 100 lbs. then 5 lbs. per every 1 inch Large-boned individuals Small-boned individuals Body mass index (BMI) helps to determine healthy weight range (continues)

26 Weight Management (continued)
Underweight individuals are more likely to have nutritional deficiencies Causes and treatment Overweight and obesity Uncontrolled obesity puts a person at higher risk for health problems (continues)

27 Weight Management (continued)
Measuring food energy Caloric requirements vary with each individual and the amount of physical energy expended Energy use needs replacement (continues)

28 Weight Management (continued)
Proper weight control leads to a long and healthy life Gradual weight loss over time Change in habits Exercise First consult with your doctor (continues)

29 Weight Management (continued)
Guidelines for weight loss Guidelines for weight gain One to two pounds per week is the safest way to lose or gain weight Dietary guidelines by the USDA are recommended for weight management

30 9:6 Therapeutic Diets Modification of normal diet used to improve specific health condition Normally prescribed by physician and planned by dietitian May change nutrients, caloric content, and/or texture May seem strange and even unpleasant to patient

31 Regular or Standard Diet
Balanced diet Usually used for ambulatory patients May have slight calorie reduction Decreased or omitted: rich desserts, cream sauces, salad dressings, and fried foods

32 Liquid Diets Clear and full liquids Liquid foods at body temperature
Clear: carbohydrates and water Full: clear liquids plus other liquids Uses such as the following: surgery, digestive problems, to replace lost fluids, and in preparation for X-rays of the digestive tract

33 Soft Diet Similar to a regular diet, but foods are easy to digest
Avoid meat, shellfish, coarse cereals, spicy foods, rich desserts, fried foods, raw vegetables, fruits, and nuts Uses: after surgery, patients with infections, digestive disorders, and chewing problems

34 Diabetic Diet Used for patients with diabetes mellitus who often take insulin Exchange lists are used to choose foods on exchange lists Avoid sugar-heavy foods

35 Calorie-Controlled Diets
Low-calorie—used for patients who are overweight; avoid or limit high-calorie foods High-calorie—used for patients who are underweight, have anorexia nervosa, hyperthyroidism, or cancer

36 Low-Cholesterol Diet Restricts foods containing cholesterol
Used for patients with atherosclerosis and heart disease Limit foods high in saturated fats

37 Fat-Restricted Diets Also called low-fat diet
Used for patients with gallbladder and liver disease, obesity, and certain heart diseases Avoid foods high in fat

38 Sodium-Restricted Diets
Otherwise known as low-sodium or low-salt diets Used for cardiovascular diseases, kidney disease, and fluid retention Avoid or limit addition of salt; avoid salt-rich foods

39 Protein Diets Protein-rich foods such as meats, fish, milk, cheese, and eggs High-protein for children and adolescents for additional growth, pregnant or lactating women, surgery, burns, fevers, infections Low-protein for certain kidney or renal diseases and allergic conditions

40 Bland Diet Easily digested foods that do not irritate the digestive tract Used for patients with ulcers, colitis, and other digestive diseases

41 Low-Residue Diet Eliminate or limit foods high in bulk and fiber
For patients with digestive or rectal diseases such as colitis or diarrhea

42 Other Therapeutic Diets
Other diets may be ordered that restrict or increase certain nutrients Check prescribed diet and ask questions if foods seem incorrect Include patient’s likes if allowed If patient refuses foods on diet, this will not contribute to good nutrition

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