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Nutrition and Diets Chapter 11.

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Presentation on theme: "Nutrition and Diets Chapter 11."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nutrition and Diets Chapter 11

2 Fundamentals Relationship between food and good health Nutrition:
Includes all body processes relating to food that allow the body to use food for energy, maintenance of health and growth Nutritional Status: State or condition of one’s nutrition Nutrition plays a role in many areas of our lives Effects of good nutrition can be seen immediately

3 Diseases or Conditions
Many can be prevented or delayed by good nutrition Hypertension Excess fat or salt Atherosclerosis Large amounts of saturated fats or cholesterol Osteoporosis Long term calcium, magnesium and vitamin D deficiency Malnutrition State of poor nutrition caused by a poor diet or illness Fatigue, depression, underweight or overweight, irritability Muscular or skeletal deficiencies, reduced mental abilities

4 Essential Nutrients Chemical elements found in food
Used by body to perform functions As body uses them, you need to replace with foods Carbohydrates Lipids Cholesterol Proteins Vitamins Minerals Water

5 Carbohydrates Major source of energy Easily digested
Starches or sugars Main source: breads, cereals, pasta, crackers, potatoes, corn, peas, beans, grains, fruits, sugar, syrups Cellulose: ingestible form of plant carbohydrate Provides bulk in the digestive tract Bran, whole grains, fibrous fruits and vegetables

6 Lipids (Fats and Oils) Three kinds of lipids in food/human body
Triglycerides Phospholipids Sterols Provide the most concentrated form of energy Functions: Maintain body temperature Cushion organs and bones Aid in absorption Provide flavor to meals

7 Saturated and Polyunsaturated Fats and Cholesterol
Usually solid at room temperature Fats in meat, eggs, whole milk, cream, butter, cheese Polyunsaturated Fats: Usually soft or oily Vegetable oils, margarines Cholesterol Sterol lipid found in body cells and animal products Egg yolk, fatty meats, butter, cream, cheese, organ meats LDL: “bad cholesterol” leads to plaque build up HDL: “good cholesterol” transports cholesterol back to the liver

8 Proteins Build and repair tissue, regulate body functions, provide energy and heat Made up of 22 “building blocks” called amino acids Complete Proteins: Contain 9 amino acids which are essential to life Meat, fish, milk, cheese, eggs Incomplete proteins: Contain 13 remaining amino acids Vegetable foods—cereals, soybeans, dry beans, corn, peas, peanuts

9 Vitamins Regulate metabolism, build tissue, regulate body processes
Allow body to use energy provided by carbohydrates, fats, and proteins Only small amount of vitamins are needed Antioxidants—help protect body from harmful chemicals/free radicals Water Soluble Vitamins: Dissolve in water, not stored in the body and can be destroyed by cooking, light, air Fat Soluble: Dissolve in fat, can be stored in the body, not easily destroyed by cooking, air, light

10 Minerals Inorganic (non-living) elements found in all body tissues
Regulate body fluids Assist in growth and muscle building Minerals including zinc, selenium, copper, and manganese are oxidants

11 Water Found in all body tissues Functions Found in most foods
Digestion Makes up most of the blood plasma, and cytoplasm of cells Helps move body tissues to absorb nutrients Moves waste materials though the body Found in most foods Average person needs 6-8 glasses of water to provide the body with the water it needs

12 Utilization of Nutrients
Digestion Process in which body breaks the food down into smaller parts Changes the food chemically Moves food through digestive system Mechanical Digestion Chemical Digestion Absorption Blood or Lymph pick up the digested nutrients and carry them to the cells Most occurs in the small intestine Metabolism Nutrients are used by cells for building tissue, providing energy and regulating functions

13 Energy During metabolism heat and energy are released
Energy is required for voluntary and involuntary work Basal metabolic rate (BMR) Rate in which body uses own energy for maintaining it’s own tissue Body needs energy continually Stores some nutrients for future use Uses stored nutrients to provide energy when food intake is not adequate for energy needs

14 Maintenance Good nutrition=good health Balanced diet USDA food pyramid
5 major food groups Foods arranged according to similar nutrients Exercise is encouraged Pyramid was updated in 2011

15 Old Food Pyramid

16 New Food Pyramid

17 Food Groups 5 major groups
Grains Veggies Fruits Milk and milk products Meats/fish/poultry, dry beans, eggs and nuts The USDA recommendations are based off of a 2,000 calorie per day diet

18 Healthy Eating Habits Make smart choices from every food group
Find balance between food and physical activity Limit fats Get the most nutrition out of your calories Use sugar in moderation Reduce sodium and increase potassium Read food labels Be aware that alcohol is harmful to your health Food habits affect nutrition

19 Weight and BMI Weight: good nutrition and adequate exercise allows an individual to maintain a healthy weight Males: 60 inches=106 lbs, each additional inch=6 additional pounds Females: 60 inches=100 lbs, each additional inch=5 additional pounds Increase up to 10% for large bone structure and decrease up to 10% for small bone structure BMI: calculation that measures weight in relationship to height and correlates that number with body fat Better indicator of health than weight alone Divide weight in kilograms by height in meters squared Ideal range is


21 Overweight Body weight that is 10-20% above average recommended weight for a person’s height Obesity: more than 20% above Health Stats show over 30% of adults are obese 60 million in the U.S. 15% of 6-17 year olds Causes: excessive calorie consumption and inadequate physical activity. Genetic, psychological, socioeconomic, cultural and environmental factors contribute. High risk for hypertension, DM, coronary heart disease, hypertension, CVA, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea Obesity decreases life span and causes many early deaths

22 Underweight Body weight that is 10-15% below desired weight
More likely to have nutritional deficiencies Can include inadequate intake of food, excessive exercise, severe infections, eating disorders, diseases and/or starvation Treatment involves gradually increasing amount of food eaten, eating higher calories, seeking counseling

23 Measuring Food Energy Foods contain energy, but vary in amount
When body metabolizes energy heat is released Measurement of amount of heat produced during metabolism is how energy content of food Is measured Heat is measured in a kilocalorie or calorie Number of kilocalories/calories are known as that foods caloric value Carbs and proteins=4 calories per gram Fat=9 calories per gram Vitamins, minerals, and water have no calories

24 Caloric Requirements Number of calories needed by the body in a 24 hour period Vary from person to person and depend on size, sex, age, physical condition, climate Physical activity is a large factor when determine caloric requirements Energy lost during activity needs to be replaced Gain weight=decrease activity/increase calories Lose weight=increase activity/decrease calories

25 Managing Weight Diets Discuss weight management with a physician
Best method is to make desired changes slowly Avoid fast weight loss because weight is regained when regular diet is resumed Increase exercise gradually Discuss weight management with a physician Nutrition plan Steady loss of 1-2 lbs per week is recommended

26 Weight loss/Gain Guidelines
1 lb= 3,500 calories Loose 1 lb—decrease of 3,500 calories is required Achieved through decrease in consumption or increase in exercise Decrease calories by 500 calories a day=3,500/1lb per week To maintain weight 15 calories per pound of body weight Gain weight Increase by 500 calories=1 lb per week Increasing or decreasing exercise along with calories is essentail Slow steady weight gain of 1-2 lbs is efficient and safe

27 USDA Dietary Guidelines
Balance calories from foods and beverages Prevent gradual weight increases Engage in 30 minutes of exercise Consume less than 10% of calories from fatty acids and less than 300 milligrams of cholesterol daily Keep total fat between 20-35% of calories Select lean, low-fat, or fat-free foods Eat more fiber-rich foods, vegetables, and whole grains

28 Therapeutic Diets Modifications of a normal diet used to improve specific health conditions Normally prescribed by a dr. and planned by dietitian Changes may include Nutrients Caloric content Textrue Healthcare workers may need to use encouragement and patients when helping individuals eat a special diet

29 Regular Diet Liquid Diet
Balanced diet usually used for patient with no dietary restrictions Liquid Diet Foods that are liquid at room temperature Nutritionally Inadequate for long periods of time Clear of full liquid diets Clear—water, apple juice, broth, plain gelatin, coffee, tea, ginger ale Full—soups, fruit/veggie juices, yogurt, ice cream, pudding, sherbet Used for patients after surgery, digestive problems, replace fluid loss, before x-rays

30 Soft Diet Diabetic Diet Foods that require little chewing
Easily digested Avoid meat and shellfish, spicy foods, rich desserts, fried foods, raw fruits and veggies, nuts Diabetic Diet Used after surgery, patients with infections, digestive or oral problems Used for patients with DM Exchange lists Group foods according to type, nutrients, calories Allow a certain number of items from each exchange list according to individual needs Sugar heavy foods, drinks, candies, cookies, syrup, jellies are avoided

31 Calorie Controlled Diets
Low calorie diet Used for overweight patients Avoid or limit high calorie foods Butter, cream, whole milk, soft drinks, fatty meats, salad dressings High calorie diet Used for patients who are underweight, have anorexia, hyperthyroidism, cancer Extra proteins and carbs are included Avoid high bulk and fibrous foods Avoid high fat foods

32 Low-Cholesterol Diet Fat-Restricted/Low-Fat diet
Restricts foods containing cholesterol Atherosclerosis and heart disease patients Limit foods high in saturated fat Fat-Restricted/Low-Fat diet Avoid cream, whole milk, cheese, fatty meats, dressings Patients with gallbladder and liver disease, obesity, and heart disease

33 Sodium-restricted diets
Low-sodium/low salt diets Avoid or limit addition of salt to any food Avoid processed or smoked foods, pickles, olives, canned foods Used for cardiovascular diseases, kidney disease or edema Protein Diet Low and High protein diets Low: kidney or renal diseases or certain conditions (PKU) High: Children/adolescents needing more growth, pregnant or lactating women, before/after surgery, burn patients Protein rich foods: cheese meats, fish, milk, eggs

34 Bland Diet Low-Residue Diet
Easily digested foods that don’t irritate the digestive tract Avoid spicy or fatty foods, alcohol, carbonated beverages Patients with ulcers, colitis, or digestive problems Low-Residue Diet Eliminates or limits foods high in fiber Raw fruits/vegetables, grains Patients with digestive and rectal diseases or diarrhea

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