2 The Power of LanguageHumans are the only animals with complex verbal languageWhat do you need to know in order to understand language?
3 The Power of LanguageExample: “My boyfriend and I are flying to his mother’s next week.”Distinct soundsEach word has a specific meaningDifferent tensesImplicit meaningsOrder of the words
4 The Power of Language This is linguistic knowledge Most of this knowledge is unconscious and learned at a young age during enculturationIt is intuitive and understood (most times) immediatelyWords are arbitraryWords are combinations of discrete and recombinable soundsLanguage is creativeIt can discuss hypothetical or imaginary things
5 Introduction To learn a language, you must learn sound production Rules for producing any sound in any human languageYou must also learn phonologyMany sounds in other languages will not be the same as those in your native language
6 phonology The study of sounds in a language It focuses on two differences1. phoneticsIdentifies and describes language sounds2. phonemicsAnalyzes the way sounds are arranged in a language
7 Emic and etic Phonetic study is often etic Phonemic study is often emic
8 Language and Sound In other words, Linguists describe and analyze the nature and patterning of soundsThese patterns make the phonological system and the study of this is phonologyWhen you speak you do not consciously think of soundsThe word “debt”How many sounds does this have?How is this different from “pet”?
9 PhonologyA phonetic chart shows all the sounds of a language and uses different symbols for different sounds made by the same letterThe sounds on the chart are called phones
10 PhonologyA phonemic chart shows only the distinctive sounds of a language, and all sounds made by one letter are grouped togetherThe sounds on the chart are called phonemes
11 PhonologyIf you grew up speaking one language you will probably use the phonetic system even when learning new languagesIf you grew up speaking multiple languages, then you can use multiple phonetic systems
12 phonetics Three types: 1. Acoustic 2. Auditory Physical properties of sounds/soundwavesVoice recognition, voiceprints2. AuditoryHow sounds are perceived and interpreted3. Articulatory/DescriptiveHow speech sounds are producedCatalogue all human language soundsUsed in fieldwork
13 Rosetta stone Egyptian hieroglyphs are not pictures, they are phonemes medieval/Ancient/v/rosetta-stone--196-b-c-e
14 anatomy Three areas of importance: 1. Lungs 2. Larynx Push air out2. LarynxWhere voice box is located and where vocal cords modify air into sounds3. Supralaryngeal vocal tractAbove vocal cordsWhere sound waves become recognizable speech sounds
16 larynx As air moves through larynx, it passes through vocal cords If cords are relaxed and open, the sound is voicelessIf cords are closed and vibrating, the sound is voicedTouch your throat and say “ssssss” and “zzzzzz”Do you feel the difference?
17 SoundsPhonemes are the particular sounds that speakers and listeners recognize as distinct from other soundsThis gives different sounds different meaningsCompare:/b/ and /p/Put your hands on your ears and say these sounds out loud/b/ causes vibrations and is called voiced (others: /d/, /z/, /v/, /j/)/p/ does not and is called voiceless (others: /t/, /s/, /f/)
18 Articulation above larynx After air moves through larynx, it goes to the nose and mouth, where it can be modified and articulatedThe position of the tongue and lips can change soundsArticulation isPlace: where the air is being modifiedManner: how the air is being modified
19 Articulation above larynx Phonetic charts are important in understanding different languagesThere are different spellings and symbols for different sounds in different languagesInternational Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) was used to have one unique symbol for each soundThis was modified to the American Usage System (AUS)Both charts are used
20 Vowels and consonants These are shown on every phonetic chart Vowels have less constricted air flow and consonants have more constricted air flowLet’s practice pronouncing different ones
21 Vowels and consonants: Articulation “Bilabial Stop”Bilabial (with both lips)Stop (stop the air and then let it out)“B,” “P”Turn to pg and look over articulation places and mannersPractice:Alveolar nasal “N”Palatal approximate “J”Velar stop (plosive) “K,” “G”
22 Vowels and consonants: Articulation Be familiar with the terms for place and manner
23 Vowels and consonants: Articulation Generally, consonants are sounds made by constricting the air stream and vowels are made by not constricting the air as much or at allPhonetic charts are not as helpful for vowelsWe look at ways air streams can be modifiedHeight of tongueHow high tongue is in mouth: “ee” sound tongue is high, “ah” sound is lowPlace of tongueHow far forward or back tongue is in mouth: “ee” sound tongue is forward, “oo” sound tongue is backRounding of lipsHolding lips in rounded or flat position: “oh” sound versus “ee” sound
24 Vowels and consonants: Articulation These are guidelinesDifferent dialects and accents can make these sound differently
25 Beyond phonetic charts Phonetic charts show the basic sounds, or segments, of languageBut language can further modify soundsThese are called suprasegmentals are have their own special symbols in a phonetic chartNasalization: sound goes through nasal cavity and not mouthPitch: high or low “notes”Clicks: air released inward (symbol is ! In Kung)Lengthening: holding sound for longer period of time
26 Assignment Article on Click Languages Video Log on Click Languages
27 phonemicsIn order to really understand and speak a language, you need to also know how the sounds are usedPhonemics/phonology analyzes the way sounds are arranged and what sounds are important in a languagePhonemics can give you an insider (emic) view of a language
28 phonemicsPhoneme is a sound that functions to distinguish one word from anotherExample: “t” and “d” are different sounds, and also distinguish the word “tie” from the word “die”This is also a minimal pair, or a pair of words in which one difference in sound makes a difference in meaningThis is how to identify phonemes
29 phonemicsAllophones are another type of phoneme; they are a group of sounds that together form a single phonemeEach allophone is a separate unit but all together they make up a phonemeWherever you find allophones in a language, there is a good chance you will also find a pattern that defines how and where they are used in a languageExample:[ph] (aspirated p sound) usually occurs at the beginning of words[p] (unaspirated p sound) usually occurs in the middle of words
30 phonemicsExample:[ph] (aspirated p sound) usually occurs at the beginning of words[p] (unaspirated p sound) usually occurs in the middle of wordsAspirated UnaspiratedPeak SpeakPool SpoolPend SpendPun Spun
31 phonemicsThe previous example is one of complementary distribution (the different variations, or allophones, are distributed between different words)Conditioned variation means variation in allomorphs happens because of the sounds around themSometimes this can be socialMen and women can pronounce words differently (example, pg. 69)Even if two languages have the same phones, they may not group them into phonemes and allophones the same wayHow does “ng” sound in our language? Where is it found in a word?How do you pronounce ngoma (drum)? Why is this difficult?
32 paralanguageParalanguage refers to anything that is communicated alongside languageVoice cuesIntensityPenmanshipEmoticons USING ALL CAPSOne must learn how to use these properly as well
33 Voice quality and intonation AKA tone of voiceMost commonly noticed type of paralanguageWhat does it mean when you whisper?What does it mean if you whine?How do you talk to a baby?Trend of ‘rising intonation’ (began with “Valley Girl”): voice goes up at the end of a sentenceHow can this be confusing with meaning?
34 Sounds: Tone Pitch of voice can also convey meaning What are the differences between these:She went to class.She went to class?In tone languages, changing voice pitch changes meaning of the wordExample: Nupe (African):Bá: high tone = “to be sour”, mid tone = “to cut”, low tone = “to count”Example: Thai:Nâa: tone falls on second vowel = “face”Nˇaa: tone rises on second vowel = “thick”