Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Dana Hrnčířová Dpt. of Nutrition, 3rd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Dana Hrnčířová Dpt. of Nutrition, 3rd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dana Hrnčířová Dpt. of Nutrition, 3rd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague

2 In general, people who exclude meat, poultry, fish, and animal- derived foods from their diets. A wide diversity of dietary practices

3 Vegans (total vegetarians) Lacto-vegetarians Ovo-vegetarians Lacto-ovo- vegetarians Pescaterians Pollo-vegetarians Semi-vegetarian (flexitarians) Raw vegan (raw food diet)

4 USA 2012 National Poll 4% of adults are vegetarians/vegans (approx. 9 million) 1% are vegans (approx. 2 millions) No much difference between male, female, region, or age for actual vegetarians (Harris Interactive poll by the Vegetarian Resource Group) Veg. Statistics - European vegetarian Union


6 Environmental/Ecological Animal welfare Religious Economical Health Family lifestyle

7 Meat replacements: products made to look and taste like meat, fish, poultry Tofu: a curd made from soybean Tempeh: a fermented soybean food Textured soy protein (TSP), soy meat: processed soybeans TOFUTEMPEH TSP

8 Ischemic Heart Disease Hypertension Diabetes Obesity Cancer Osteoporosis Diverticular Disease Gallstones Rheumatoid Arthritis

9 Lower risk of death Adjustment for BMI, smoking habits, social calss Incidence 24% lower in lifelong vegetarians Incidence 57% lower in lifelong vegans Lower TCh, LDL-Ch Higher intakes of fiber, nuts, soy, and plant sterols Lower intakes of SFA Vegetarians 50-100% more fiber than non-vegetarians

10 Lower rates of hypertension: Non-vegetarians > vegetarians > vegans Lower blood pressure Non-vegetarians > vegetarians diet or lower BMI? Beneficial nutrients Potassium, magnesium, antioxidants, fiber, fat 5-10 servings of fruits and vegetables significantly lowers BP

11 Positive associations between intakes of red meat and processed meat and risk of diabetes after adjusting for BMI, total energy intake, exercise … Beneficial nutrients: vegetables, whole-grain foods, legumes, and nuts diets rich in whole-grain foods are associated with improved insulin sensitivity

12 Vegetarians maintain lower BMI than non-vegetarians Non-vegetarians > vegetarians > vegans (BMI) Lower weight correlates with high intakes of fiber and low intakes of fat

13 Significantly lower rates of cancer nondependent on smoking (Colorectal and prostate cancer) Obesity is significant risk factor for cancer; meat? Cancer-protective dietary factors: Fiber, C, carotenoids, flavonoids, lycopene fruits, vegetables (lung, mouth, esophagus, stomach) Legumes (prostate, stomach) Soy isoflavones (breast) ???

14 Dairy products, green leafy vegetables, and calcium- fortified plant foods – calcium for vegetarians no differences in bone mineral density between omnivores and lacto-ovo-vegetarians Increased intake of friuts and vegetables (K, Mg) - positive effect on the calcium economy High protein intake, especially animal protein, can produce increased calciuria Low protein intakes may increase the risk of low bone integrity

15 Protein quality Vitamin B 12 Omega-3 Fatty Acids Vitamin D Calcium Iron Zinc Protein

16 The combination of plant protein foods which when eaten together provide all the essential amino acids. E.g. combinaton of legumes and grains

17 The more restricted the vegetarian diet, the greater the challenge to achieve a nutritionally adequate diet. The goal: consume a variety of foods to obtain all of the needed nutrients. Nutritional consciousness (Fe, vitamin C, B12, …)


19 Foods 1serving Number of Servings/day Fruits ½ cup fresh/canned/frozen3–4 Vegetables ½ cup cooked/1 cup raw4–6 Whole Grains 1 slice whole-grain bread 1 cup whole-grain cereal, ½ cup cooked rice/pasta 5–8 Legumes ½ cup cooked legumes ½ cup tofu 1 cup soy milk 3–6 Nuts, Seeds ¼ cup nuts or seeds1–3 Plant Oils 1 teaspoonup to 5 Eggs 1 egg 4–6 per week Dairy 1 cup milk/yogurt ¼ cup cheese ½ cup cottage cheese 1–3 Oldways 2013

20 Dietary guidelines for Americans 2010 Position paper of American Dietetic Association 2009 American Heart Association Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine - Dietary Guidelines Goals and Recommendations Harvard School of Public Health Up-to-date research

Download ppt "Dana Hrnčířová Dpt. of Nutrition, 3rd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google