NUTRIENT NEEDS For the first 4-6 months babies get all their nutrients from breast milk and/or formula. When the baby starts to eat solid foods they must have iron for brain development, zinc for to fight infections, calcium and vitamin D for bone development, Omega 3 for heart health, Vitamin A,B,C,E for healthy brain and nerve development.
INFANCY Infancy is the lifecycle period from birth to 12 months. Nutrition is important during this time as there is rapid growth and development. A balance diet is required for total development. After 6 months on breast milk and formula, the baby needs some solid foods for extra nutrients. From this age, texture is needed to encourage the development of muscles that are required for speech. It is important to introduce solid food too early as the digestive system and kidneys are not developed enough to cope with solids.
Nutrient needs/Key needs Toddlers need certain nutrients, vitamins and minerals tor promote growth and bone development etc. Some of the vitamins and minerals include Carbohydrates and fats Protein Calcium Iron Vitamins A and C (B complex vitamins etc) Potassium Zinc Essential fatty acids Vitamin D, E
Nutrient needs and food requirements during childhood Children have increased energy and nutrient needs. Active children may require more complex carbohydrates as they provide energy. As parents often greatly influence what children eat it is important that parents emphasise the importance of healthy diet and lifestyle, so that the child will carry these healthy habits into adulthood. Children should eat a balanced and healthy diet as healthy eating in childhood may reduce the risk of developing nutrition-related disorders in the future. Obesity is becoming an increasing problem in children, as many children have unhealthy diets and are inactive. As you can see, it is quite important to maintain a healthy lifestyle during childhood to avoid disease. Children also need more water than adults as they have a larger body surface area per unit of body weight and a reduced capacity for sweating when compared to adults, so it is more important that they keep hydrated.
Nutritional Requirements Calcium for bones – Both need 1300 mg each day Protein for growth and development Need Vitamin C to absorb iron from plants Female Adolescents need more iron than men has we go through the menstrual cycle. Men need 11mg and Females 15mg of Iron each day Folic Acid (Folate) to maintain old cells and create new ones
Continued… Magnesium – to help muscles and nerves function, steadies heart rhythm and keep bones strong. (Men 410 mg, Females 360 mg each day) Phosphorus – helps form bones and teeth, helps make energy for the body, help cells function (Both 1250 mg each day) Potassium – Helps heart, muscle and nervous system function, helps body maintain the balance of water in the blood and body tissue (Both 4700 mg each day) Zinc – For growth, strong immunity, wound healing (Men 11mg, Females 9mg)
Foods that contain these minerals… Magnesium – Whole grains Breads, Nuts, Seeds, Green Leafy Vegetables, Potatoes, beans, chocolate, avocado, bananas and milk. Phosphorus – Dairy Foods, Meat and Fish. Potassium – Banana, dried fruits, green leafy vegetables, citrus fruits and legumes Zinc – Red Meats, Seafood, Nuts, Dried Beans, Dairy products and whole grain
Adolescents should aim to consume: Vegetables of different types and colours, and legumes/beans Fruit Grain (cereal) foods, mostly whole grain and/or high cereal fibre varieties, such as breads, cereals, rice, pasta, noodles, polenta, couscous, oats, quinoa and barley Lean meats and poultry, fish, eggs, tofu, nuts and seeds Milk, yoghurt, cheese and/or their alternatives, mostly reduced fat Drink plenty of water Limit intake of foods containing saturated fat, added salt and added sugars. At this stage in our lives, we become more independent on what we choose to eat and should make good choices based on what is available to us
- during adulthood stage your growth has usually stopped. -you have to have to have a balanced diet to consume all nutrients necessary for good health. -adults needs to make sure that their energy intake balances their energy output so that they don’t put on weight -by mid age about 50% of Australians are over weight Adulthood
Nutrient needs/key needs/ Food requirements eat plenty of vegetables, legumes and fruits eat plenty of cereals including breads, rice, pasta and noodles preferably wholegrain include lean meat, fish, poultry, and/or alternatives such as eggs, legumes and nuts include milk, yoghurts and cheeses and/or alternatives. Low-fat varieties should be chosen where possible and drink plenty of water Energy Varies depending on your height, weight, gender and activity levels. See ‘How much do I need to eat’ below for guidelines. Protein Women: 45-60g/day Men: 65-80g/day Fat Should be 30% of total energy intake, that is 70g/day. Saturated fat Should be less than 10% of your total energy intake, that is less than 24g/day. Carbohydrate 45- 65% of total energy intake (230-310g/day). Fibre Women: 25g/day Men: 30g/day
Food Requirements: -Supply of protein for growth and new cells -(Vitamin D) assisting bones and teeth -6-8 glasses of water daily -Iron and foliate to prevent anaemia _______________________________________ Pregnancy Needs: -Protein -Calcium (Vitamin D -Iron -Foliate -Fibre The pregnancy needs must fill the mother and babies requirements of health and general nutrients development.
Pregnancy stage is very restricted on types of diets and starving yourself making sure you have a balanced diet, also including hydration level. Avoid certain herbs example: Basil, parsley, and cinnamon Raw eggs risk salmonella.
What is lactation? Lactation is the production of breast milk. Breast milk boosts the intake of extra nutrients, such as vitamins and minerals and proteins that a newborn child needs to sustain a healthy life style and grow healthily. It is a strong source of energy and nutrition, and most newborns have breast milk for up until 6 months, sometimes longer.
Nutrients needed in lactation Protein: Protein and energy are needed in a diet so there will be no decrease in the amount of milk being produced. Calcium: Calcium is one of the major minerals needed during lactation and even pregnancy. Calcium is needed for the proper development of the baby's skeletal system. It is also essential for the product of milk. Vitamin: The requirements of vitamins increase during lactation especially vitamin a, b and c. Vitamin c helps the body to heal after pregnancy, vitamin b helps your body produce and energy and vitamin a helps maintain healthy cells in the body.
Women lactating should eat: Milk drinks Cereal and milk Yoghurt Nuts and seeds Avacado Meat, fish and chicken Eggs Legumes Cheese Soy milk Dried fruit Wholegrain breads Green leafy vegetables Citrus fruits Drink plenty of water
Background Information Australians are living longer than they ever have before. In the year 2008 around 13% of Australians population was aged 65 and over by the year 2056 this figure is expected to increase to 23-25%. A good nutrition and an active lifestyle are vital in maintaining the well the health in older people.
Nutrient needs Energy (not to consume high amounts of energy as the elderly don’t do much exercise e.g. carrots) Protein (meat, fish, eggs and pulses) Vitamin C, D (fresh fruit and veg, oily fish, and certain cereals) Iron (red meats, lentils, green vegetables) Calcium (yogurt, cheese, green leafy vegetables)