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PROTEIN-Part Two NFSC 303 – Nutrition and Fitness McCafferty.

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1 PROTEIN-Part Two NFSC 303 – Nutrition and Fitness McCafferty

2 Protein RDA §Nitrogen Balance Studies: l N Balance = §Intake: §Output:

3 § § § §

4 Example:

5 On the RDA table: §Males 19-24 years: l (based on reference male 5’10” 160# ) §Females 19-24 years: l (based on reference female 5’5” 128#) §

6 “Appropriate Body Weight” §Females: 100# for first 5’ of height, plus _______ __________________________________________ §Males: 106# for first 5’ of height, plus _________ __________________________________________ §(for those under 5’, subtract 2 lb. per inch under 5’) § §Use appropriate body weight to calculate your protein needs §

7 Adjusted Calculation for “Obesity” §If your weight  appropriate body weight > 130%, AND the extra weight is not muscle mass use adjusted calculation to figure protein needs §[(ABW - RBW) X0.25] +RBW = adjusted weight l ABW = l RBW = l 0.25 =

8 Example: Deb is 5’7” tall and weighs 185 pounds. She is lightly to moderately active. Calculate her protein needs.


10 Typical U.S. Intake §Typical Male: §Typical Female: §Older Americans may need §Do Athletes need more protein? §Do Athletes require protein supplements?

11 Protein Requirements for Exercisers/Athletes §Regular exerciser: §No RDA for athletes, but recommended: §Endurance §Strength (resistance trained) §Vegetarian: §Controversial – §Protein sparing effect of adequate kcals

12 Example 1: Regular exerciser Beth cycles 4-5 hours per week. She’s 5’8” tall and weighs 145 pounds. Estimate her protein needs.

13 Example 2: Strength Athlete Mike is a competitive body builder. He is 6’1” tall and weighs 205#. Estimate his protein needs.

14 Excessive Protein Intake §>2.0g/kg? §ASSOCIATED WITH: l l l l l l No evidence to support kidney damage in healthy adults.

15 Vegetarianism §Affects protein intake because some or all animal foods are eliminated from the diet.

16 Why Do People Go Veggie? §Potential for improved health §Environmental Concerns §Scarce availability or high cost of meat §Concern over inhumane treatment of animals §Cultural or Religious Practices §Some combination of these

17 The Vegetarian Continuum §Vegetarian: §

18 The Vegetarian Continuum § §

19 §Other terms: l Far vegetarian: l Pescovegetarian: l Semivegetarian: l Fruitarian:

20 But are there health benefits? §Vegetarian diet is usually: l l

21 Vegetarians Are At Decreased Risk For: § § § §Colon Cancer §Hypertension §Gallstones §Kidney Stones

22 Vegetarians also §drink less alcohol §are less likely to smoke §are less likely to use drugs §exercise more §lead a healthier lifestyle overall

23 Plants Do Provide Protein! Quick Review: §Proteins are built from amino acids §In order for the body to build a protein, it must have ALL the EAAs. §If just one essential amino acid is missing, protein cannot be synthesized, and all the other amino acids are deaminated.

24 But all protein sources are not created equal. §Complete Proteins l l meat, fish and poultry eggs dairy

25 §“Incomplete” proteins l l l

26 So, how does the body make protein from plant foods? By combining “Complimentary Proteins” Complimentary proteins: protein foods whose AAs compliment each other so that the EAAs missing from each are supplied by the other.

27 For Example: § §

28 So … § § § § §

29 Even better: § l Peanut-sesame seed snack mix l minestrone soup and salad topped with nuts l grain and nut cereal with soy milk § l add cheese to bean and rice burrito l macaroni and cheese l add hard-cooked egg to salad l drink a glass of milk with the meal


31 A Quick Word About Soy Protein § § § §

32 Potential Nutritional Concerns With a Vegetarian Diet §Variety and Adequacy §The more restrictive the diet, the more potential for nutritional inadequacy §Special attention to combining proteins: l

33 Specific Nutrients of Concern §Calcium l §Iron and Zinc l §Vitamin B 12 l §Vitamin D l

34 Vegetarian Sources §Calcium l §Iron l l l

35 Vegetarian Sources §Vitamin B12 l §Vitamin D l l

36 Choose Wisely §Choose whole grains §Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables §Choose plenty of legumes §Combine protein sources every day §Watch the junk food! l Fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and empty calories


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