Presentation on theme: "WW1 Peace Treaties & The Legacy of the War 13-4 Jessica, Sunny, Rachel."— Presentation transcript:
WW1 Peace Treaties & The Legacy of the War 13-4 Jessica, Sunny, Rachel
The Story so far… ► World War I is over, the killing has ceased. ► January 18, 1919, a conference was built at the Palace of Versailles. The Allied powers, the victors of WWI, meet to clean up the war mess.
Meeting at Versailles ► Paris Peace Conference Delegates representing 32 countries Major decisions were made by the Big Four: ► Woodrow Wilson (U.S.) ► Georges Clemenceau (France) ► David Lloyd George (Great Britain) ► Vittorio Orlando (Italy)
Woodrow’s Plan 1918 ► Woodrow proposed his Fourteen Points Outlined a plan for maintaining peace Proposed the following points: ► 1st Point: End all secret treaties ► 2 nd Point: Freedom of the Seas ► 3 rd Point: Free trade ► 4 th Point: Reduce national armies (trying to stop militarism) ► 5 th Point: Colonial Fairness (trying to stop harsh imperialism) ► 6 th -13 th Points: Rearranging borders (self-determination) ► 14 th Point: Create a general association of nations that would negotiate solutions to world conflicts
Unsatisfied with Wilson’s plan ► Plan threatened national security ► Plan was too nice– GB and France thought it lacked punishment against Germany Wanted to take away Germany’s power Clemenceau wanted Germany to pay for France’s suffering ► France lost more than 1,000,000 soldiers and civilians during wartime. This was about 11% of the population. ► France’s land was destroyed and devastated.
Treaty of Versailles 1919 ► French, British, and U.S. argued and finally compromised. The product was The Treaty of Versailles. ► Signed between Germany and the Allied powers, June 28. 1919. Adopted Wilson’s 14 th point, created League of Nations ► Aimed for world peace, stopping further wars ► General Assembly, 32 allied and neutral nations ► Executive Council, the 5 Allied Powers U.S. Great Britain France Italy Japan Germany and Russia were left out of the League of Nations.
Punishments Against Germany ► Treaty of Versailles also punished Germany: Portions of Germany’s territories were taken away, colonies in Asia and Africa were given to League of Nations to be administered. Military restrictions Article 231-” Germany was solely responsible for the war”, therefore, had to pay reparations to the Allies. League of Nations Germany Loses Territory Germany is restricted in its military War Guilt 32 Allied Nations, But… Germany & Russia are excluded Germany has to return Alsace- Lorraine to France Germany loses all of its overseas territory in Africa & Pacific Cannot buy/build military weapons or war machines Set limit to size of army Is declared totally responsible for World War I Has to pay the equivalent $33 Billion to Allies in 30 years Major Provisions pg. 381 Alsace- Lorraine is given up to France Germany
New Nations Formed ► Negotiated between Allies and defeated nations (Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire) 1919, 1920. It literally broke down Europe into many tinier new nations. Austro-Hungarian Empire was broken down into independent nations: Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia Ottomans had to give up all the land lost in Southwest Asia, losing Palestine, Iraq, and Transjordan to British rule. Syria and Lebanon went to France. The Ottomans could only keep Turkey. Russia lost territory to Romania and Poland. Also, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania (formerly part of Russia) become independent nations. Europe Before WWIAfter WWI
Unlasting peace ► U.S. rejected the treaty Americans thought that if they wanted peace, they should get themselves out of European affairs. ► Germany is upset War-guilt clause caused them to hate the Allies. Economically devastated Militarily restricted In their point of view, unfairly sanctioned ► Colonies were unsatisfied that they could still not gain independence ► Japan and Italy did not get what they wanted out of the war—land, so also backed out. ► Without consent or support of U.S., the League of Nations could not do anything to amend or take any action. ► Observer at Versailles noted the treaty was merely, “a peace built on quicksand.”
Legacy of WWI ► This was a New kind of war. New weapons and technology were introduced killing people faster, and more efficiently than ever before. ► War was brought to the global scale ► People could see that war could get extremely destructive.
Sum it UP ► War costs Approx. 8.5 million soldiers died 21 million people were wounded Many died of starvation and disease Economic impact: $338 billion! Miles and miles of farmland, villages destroyed
► War Effects, cont. Many soldiers were disillusioned People felt insecure and hopeless during wartime
Photo cr. Slide 3 Woodrow Wilson photo from: http://www.visitingdc.com/images/woodrow-wilson-picture.jpg Georges Clemenceau photo from: http://www.gwpda.org/photos/bin14/imag1396.jpg http://www.gwpda.org/photos/bin14/imag1396.jpg David Lloyd photo from: http://www.probertencyclopaedia.com/j/Lloyd-George.jpg http://www.probertencyclopaedia.com/j/Lloyd-George.jpg Vittorio Orlando photo from: http://www.gwpda.org/photos/bin07/imag0640.jpg http://www.gwpda.org/photos/bin07/imag0640.jpg Slide 5 Thumbs down photo from: http://blog.sellsiusrealestate.com/wp-content/uploads/2006/06/Complaints%20thumbs%20down-784494.jpg http://blog.sellsiusrealestate.com/wp-content/uploads/2006/06/Complaints%20thumbs%20down-784494.jpg Slide 6 League of Nations photo from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Symbol_of_the_League_of_Nations.svg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Symbol_of_the_League_of_Nations.svg Slide 7 Alsace-Lorraine photo from: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9c/Deutsches_Reich_%28Karte%29_Elsa%C3%9F- Lothringen.svg/650px-Deutsches_Reich_%28Karte%29_Elsa%C3%9F-Lothringen.svg.png http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9c/Deutsches_Reich_%28Karte%29_Elsa%C3%9F- Lothringen.svg/650px-Deutsches_Reich_%28Karte%29_Elsa%C3%9F-Lothringen.svg.pnghttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9c/Deutsches_Reich_%28Karte%29_Elsa%C3%9F- Lothringen.svg/650px-Deutsches_Reich_%28Karte%29_Elsa%C3%9F-Lothringen.svg.png Slide 8 Slide 9, machine gun photo from: http://www.answers.com/topic/technology-during-world-war-I http://www.answers.com/topic/technology-during-world-war-I tank photo from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanks_in_World_War_I http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanks_in_World_War_I