Presentation on theme: "The Final Days of WWI IB 20 th Century History Defeat of Central Powers 1918 Russia was out of the War (Russian Revolution) Central Powers focus on taking."— Presentation transcript:
Defeat of Central Powers 1918 Russia was out of the War (Russian Revolution) Central Powers focus on taking over Paris May 1918 just 37 miles from Paris but U.S. troops arriving everyday. End of September 1918: Turkey asks for peace Austria-Hungarian empire breaks up
Armistice – an agreement to stop fighting November 11, 1918 at 11:00 a.m. all fighting stops and WWI comes to an end
Terms of Armistice Germany agrees to: Cancel treaty with Russia Give up a large part of its navy including all submarines Turn over much of its munitions Release war prisoners
Cost of WWI 8.5 million dead 1.8 million Germans, 1.8 million Russians 1.4 million French 1 million Austria and Hungary 1 million British 110,000 U.S. 21 million wounded Total cost was more than $300 billion
The Story so far… World War I is over, the killing has ceased. January 18, 1919, a conference was built at the Palace of Versailles. The Allied powers, the victors of WWI, meet to clean up the war mess.
Paris Peace Conference Where – Versailles (outside of Paris) When – January 1919 Why – To arrange terms of peace Who – British Prime Minister David Lloyd George French Premier Georges Clemenceau Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando U.S. President Woodrow Wilson
Meeting at Versailles Paris Peace Conference Delegates representing 32 countries Major decisions were made by the Big Four: Woodrow Wilson (U.S.) Georges Clemenceau (France) David Lloyd George (Great Britain) Vittorio Orlando (Italy)
Conflict of Interests France wanted security over another German attack, return of Alsace-Lorraine Britain wanted Germany’s African’s colonies & destruction of Germany’s navy Italy also wanted land Japan wanted German colonies in the Pacific
“I can predict with absolute certainty that within another generation there will be another world war if the nations of the world do not concert the method by which to prevent it." Woodrow Wilson, 1919
Woodrow’s Plan 1918 Woodrow proposed his Fourteen Points Outlined a plan for maintaining peace Proposed the following points: 1st Point: End all secret treaties 2 nd Point: Freedom of the Seas 3 rd Point: Free trade 4 th Point: Reduce national armies (trying to stop militarism) 5 th Point: Colonial Fairness (trying to stop harsh imperialism) 6 th -13 th Points: Rearranging borders (self-determination) 14 th Point: Create a general association of nations that would negotiate solutions to world conflicts (The League of Nations)
Unsatisfied with Wilson’s plan Plan threatened national security Plan was too nice– GB and France thought it lacked punishment against Germany Wanted to take away Germany’s power Clemenceau wanted Germany to pay for France’s suffering France lost more than 1,000,000 soldiers and civilians during wartime. This was about 11% of the population. France’s land was destroyed and devastated.
Why did the US Reject the Treaty of Versailles? Critics of the Treaty believed that the League would drag the US into future European wars (Senator Henry Cabot Lodge) Americans were “war weary” and wanted to return to isolationism Wilson suffered a stroke and was unable to sell the treaty to the people The US refused to join the League of Nations, making the League a “paper tiger” or weak on the world stage.
U.S. – Wanted organization to maintain world peace called League of Nations Idea was well liked Many thought it was not realistic Reparations – payment for war damages Who should pay? How much?
What Kind of Peace? Option 1: Fair and not so harsh that it would kindle future wars Option 2: Germany caused the war, should be punished harshly to prevent them from ever being powerful again.
Treaty of Versailles 1919 French, British, and U.S. argued and finally compromised. The product was The Treaty of Versailles. Signed between Germany and the Allied powers, June 28. 1919. Adopted Wilson’s 14 th point, created League of Nations Aimed for world peace, stopping further wars General Assembly, 32 allied and neutral nations Executive Council, the 5 Allied Powers U.S. Great Britain France Italy Japan Germany and Russia were left out of the League of Nations.
Treaty of Versailles 1. Pay reparations 2. Admit guilt 3. Give up territory 4. Not build up Rhineland 5. Free Poland 6. Make Danzig a free city 7. Allow allied troops in Rhineland 8. Establish “Polish Corridor” to sea 9. Not manufacture war materials 10. Make army smaller 11. Establish League of Nations
Punishments Against Germany Treaty of Versailles also punished Germany: Portions of Germany’s territories were taken away, colonies in Asia and Africa were given to League of Nations to be administered. Military restrictions Article 231-” Germany was solely responsible for the war”, therefore, had to pay reparations to the Allies. League of Nations Germany Loses Territory Germany is restricted in its military War Guilt 32 Allied Nations, But… Germany & Russia are excluded Germany has to return Alsace- Lorraine to France Germany loses all of its overseas territory in Africa & Pacific Cannot buy/build military weapons or war machines Set limit to size of army Is declared totally responsible for World War I Has to pay the equivalent $33 Billion to Allies in 30 years Major Provisions Alsace- Lorraine is given up to France Germany
New Nations Formed Negotiated between Allies and defeated nations (Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire) 1919, 1920. It literally broke down Europe into many tinier new nations. Austro-Hungarian Empire was broken down into independent nations: Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia Ottomans had to give up all the land lost in Southwest Asia, losing Palestine, Iraq, and Transjordan to British rule. Syria and Lebanon went to France. The Ottomans could only keep Turkey. Russia lost territory to Romania and Poland. Also, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania (formerly part of Russia) become independent nations. Europe Before WWIAfter WWI
Unlasting peace U.S. rejected the treaty Americans thought that if they wanted peace, they should get themselves out of European affairs. Germany is upset War-guilt clause caused them to hate the Allies. Economically devastated Militarily restricted In their point of view, unfairly sanctioned Colonies were unsatisfied that they could still not gain independence Japan and Italy did not get what they wanted out of the war—land, so also backed out. Without consent or support of U.S., the League of Nations could not do anything to amend or take any action. Observer at Versailles noted the treaty was merely, “a peace built on quicksand.”
Legacy of WWI This was a New kind of war. New weapons and technology were introduced killing people faster, and more efficiently than ever before. War was brought to the global scale People could see that war could get extremely destructive.
Nationalistic pride Competition for colonies Military buildup Tangled web of alliances Assassination of Franz Ferdinand Causes of WWI Effects of WWI Destruction in Europe Boom in American economy Suppression of dissent in the U.S. Allied victory Defeated empires lose their colonies The U.S. emerges from the war as a world leader and an economic giant