Presentation on theme: "WWI Comes to an End The Terms of Peace & Creating a New Europe."— Presentation transcript:
WWI Comes to an End The Terms of Peace & Creating a New Europe
Defeat of Central Powers ► 1918 Russia out of the War ► Central Powers focus on taking over Paris ► May 1918 just 37 miles from Paris but U.S. troops arriving everyday. ► End of September 1918: Bulgaria surrenders Soon after Turkey asks for peace Austria-Hungarian empire breaks up
► Armistice – an agreement to stop fighting ► November 11, 1918 at 11:00 a.m. all fighting stops and WWI comes to an end
Terms of Armistice ► Germany agrees to: Cancel treaty with Russia Give up a large part of its navy including all submarines Turn over much of its munitions Release war prisoners
Cost of WWI ► 8.5 million dead 1.8 million Germans, 1.8 million Russians 1.4 million French 1 million Austria and Hungary 1 million British 110,000 U.S. ► 21 million wounded ► Total cost was more than $300 billion
Paris Peace Conference ► Where – Versailles (outside of Paris) ► When – January 1919 ► Why – To arrange terms of peace ► Who – British Prime Minister David Lloyd George French Premier Georges Clemenceau Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando U.S. President Woodrow Wilson
Conflict of Interests ► France wanted security over another German attack, return of Alsace- Lorraine ► Britain wanted Germany’s African’s colonies & destruction of Germany’s navy ► Italy also wanted land ► Japan wanted German colonies in the Pacific
The Fourteen Points ► President Woodrow Wilson’s plan for peace ► Six were general ► Eight dealt with specific countries/regions (ex: Alsace-Loraine) ► Main goal was to build a just and safer world
Six General Ideas of 14 Points 1. No secret treaties 2. Freedom of the seas for all nations 3. Removal of all economic barriers (tariffs) 4. Reduction of national weapons 5. Adjust colonial claims so they are fair to imperialists and colonists 6. Establishment of “a general association of nations” for protection of all countries.
► U.S. – Wanted organization to maintain world peace called League of Nations Idea was well liked Many thought it was not realistic ► Reparations – payment for war damages ► Who should pay? How much?
What Kind of Peace? ► Option 1: Fair and not so harsh that it would kindle future wars ► Option 2: Germany caused the war, should be punished harshly to prevent them from ever being powerful again.
Treaty of Versailles 1. Pay reparations 2. Admit guilt 3. Give up territory 4. Not build up Rhineland 5. Free Poland 6. Make Danzig a free city 7. Allow allied troops in Rhineland 8. Establish “Polish Corridor” to sea 9. Not manufacture war materials 10. Make army smaller 11. Establish League of Nations