2 Paris Peace Conference Held at Palace of Versailles in January 1919Delegates from 32 countriesGermany & its allies AND Russia were left outThe Big Four:U.S.- WilsonBritain- GeorgeFrance- ClemenceauItaly- Orlando
3 You are a representative at the Paris Peace Conference Blame: who is to be assigned blame for the war?Why?
4 Cost of the War Who should pay for the cost of the war? Actual cost $338 billionmillions soldiers dead/woundedCentral Powers: millionAllies: 22 million*5 million civilians dead21 million soldiers wounded
5 Germany’s MilitaryShould Germany be allowed to keep a military? If so, what should they be allowed?Military? Navy? Army?Soldiers?Uboats? Other ships?Weapons?Poison Gas?Airplanes?Much more…
6 What should happen to the colonies of Germany & Turkey? A. Britain & France should divide up and control the colonies of Turkey & GermanyB. Germany & Turkey should be allowed to keep their coloniesC. All German & Turkish colonies should be allowed to govern themselves as independent nationsD. Other?
7 RhinelandRhinelandThe area that lies on the German side of the border with FranceWhat should happen to the Rhineland?A. Allies take control of the area not allowing German military to have any presence thereB. Allow Germans to keep control of the areaC. France and Germany share the area equallyD. Other?
8 The Big Four’s Goals U.S.- Woodrow Wilson: Britain- George: a lasting and just peaceBritain- George:reduce Germany’s military powerFrance- Clemenceau:punish Germany!Italy- Orlando-sought territory for Italy
9 Wilson’s 14 Points Wilson wanted to create a lasting & just peace Fourteen points (his fair plan for peace)End to secret treatiesReduce national armies & naviesMake changes to colonies to benefit the colonial peopleChanging borders & creating new nations*self-determination: allowing people to decide for themselves the gov’t they want to live under14th point: create a League of Nations, an organization that could find peaceful solutions to conflicts in the world
10 Treaty of Versailles “war guilt” clause Signed exactly 5 years after assassination of Archduke FF1. Germany is to accept full responsibility for the war“war guilt” clause2. Germany will pay Allies $33 billion in war reparations3. Germany will reduce its military, forbidden to make weapons, no submarines or air force4. Germany will give up all colonies to France & Britain5. German military can be nowhere near the Rhineland6. Germany gives Alsace-Lorraine territory back to France
11 Aftermath Treaty creates bitterness & feelings of betrayal New nations are created (Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia…)Ottoman Empire is forced to give up all territory to Allies, only allowed TurkeySince Russia left war early, they are forced to give up landEstonia, Latvia, Lithuania-independent nationsPoland & Romania- independent nationsJapan & Italy did not get as much territory as they wantedJoined to gain territoryLook on p.426: what new nations were formed after WWI?
12 League of NationsU.S. Senate rejects Treaty of Versailles b/c League of NationsThought it would lead to future U.S. involvement in European wars“A peace built on quicksand”