Big Four Woodrow Wilson – US Georges Clemenceau – France David Lloyd George – G.B. Vittorio Orlando – Italy 32 Total Countries
Wilson’s 14 Points Plan for achieving lasting peace End secret treaties Freedom of seas Free trade Reduced nat’l military Adjust colonial claims Changing borders and creating nations Self-Determination – Decide for selves
Treaty of Versailles June 28, 1919 Created League of Nations Punished Germany – ◦lost land – Alsace-Lorraine, west bank of Rhine, Surrenders overseas colonies ◦military restrictions – size, can’t import or manufacture weapons or material, no subs, no air force ◦“war guilt” clause – Sole responsibility of war, Pay allies $33 billion over 30 years to allies
New Nations Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia Ottomans reduced to Turkey Palestine, Iraq, Transjordan under British Syria and Lebanon under France Romania and Poland gained Russian land Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania became independent
Weak Peace US rejected treaty Americans wanted to stay out of European issues Germans were bitter European colonialism continued in Africa and Asia
Questions Why do we fight? Can peace replace war as a driving force in history? Which country or countries caused WWI? Is the “blame game” appropriate? Come up with your own peace treaty for WWI – Or at least one clause.