Presentation on theme: "ELEMENTS OF THE SHORT STORY The short story emerges from the writer’s careful manipulation of various formal elements, which will usually include: Plot."— Presentation transcript:
ELEMENTS OF THE SHORT STORY The short story emerges from the writer’s careful manipulation of various formal elements, which will usually include: Plot (Action and Conflict) Characterization Setting (Time and Place) Point of View Tone Symbolism Theme Language
THE PLOT The plot is the action or events of a story, arranged in a meaningful way. There are usually the following stages in the development of the plot: Exposition: The situation is established. This includes information about the background of the story, the introduction of characters, the description of the setting and the establishment of atmosphere. Conflict: This is the central action, also known as “the complication”. This conflict usually leads to the climax (high-point of intensity of feeling or action) of the story. Denouement: The end of the story – the outcome of the conflict, also known as the resolution.
CHARACTERS IN SHORT STORIES Broadly speaking, there are two types of characters: (a)The developing character: This kind of character undergoes a process in which his attitudes and beliefs are CHANGED. (Rounded character.) (b)The static character: This kind of character does NOT change. (Flat character.)
THE SETTING (TIME AND PLACE) Functions of the Setting: 1.Contributes to theme 2.Creates atmosphere and tone 3.Helps to unfold the action and conflict 4.Contributes to our understanding of characters ( The setting may be part of the exposition, or may be spread throughout the story.)
Omniscient (all- knowing) First person narrator Dramatic Limited third person POINT OF VIEW
There is an all-knowing presence in the story who has access to the thoughts of all the characters. This point of view is God-like. OMNISCIENT POINT OF VIEW
This is when the story is told by a character IN the story. The first person narrator may or may not be central to the action. The first person may be the protagonist or a secondary character who is peripheral to the main action. The personal pronoun “I” is used. FIRST PERSON NARRATOR
There is no overt interpretation of the thoughts or actions of any of the characters, only the description and presentation of them. In these kinds of stories, the narrator doesn’t “pick sides”. The reader has to form his/her own opinion of the characters. DRAMATIC POINT OF VIEW
In this kind of story the reader is only presented with the thoughts, feelings and experiences of ONE of the characters in the story. The personal pronoun “he” or “she” is used. The narrator confines himself to what this single character experiences. LIMITED THIRD PERSON POINT OF VIEW
TONE Tone is really the writer’s attitude towards the subject he is writing about and his attitude to the reader. The author MANIPULATES the tone to produce a specific response in the reader.
SYMBOLISM A symbol is an object, action, or idea that represents something other than itself, often of a more abstract nature. Symbolism creates quality aspects that make literature like poetry and novels more meaningful.
THEME The theme is the main idea that the writer is trying to put across to the reader. It runs through the whole story and is the important aspect that UNIFIES the story. The THEME is the general SUBJECT of the story.
Style in literature is the literary element that describes the ways that the author uses words — the author's word choice, sentence structure, figurative language, and sentence arrangement all work together to establish mood, images, and meaning in the text. Style describes how the author describes events, objects, and ideas. STYLE
ELEMENTS OF THE SHORT STORY (REVISION) The short story emerges from the writer’s careful manipulation of various formal elements, which will usually include: Plot (Action and Conflict) Characterization Setting (Time and Place) Point of View Tone Symbolism Theme Language