Presentation on theme: "Advertising Metrics This module covers the concepts of impressions, gross rating points, CPM, reach, frequency, and share of voice. Author: Paul Farris."— Presentation transcript:
1 Advertising MetricsThis module covers the concepts of impressions, gross rating points, CPM, reach, frequency, and share of voice.Author: Paul FarrisMarketing Metrics Reference: Chapter 9
2 Impressions Definition Impressions are the basic unit of advertisement measurementEach time a person has an opportunityto see an ad, an exposure, orimpression is countedMore accurately, these are Opportunities to Seeas we don’t know if the person actually paid attentionDefinitionImpressions = Exposures = Opportunities to See (OTS)
3 Gross Rating Points (GRPs) Rating Points are impressions as a percent of a population. Therefore, if an advertisement is shown on TV 4 times and that show is watched by 10,000 people out of a population of 100,000, that advertisement would generate 40 rating points (4 x 10,000 / 100,000). Because people can be exposed to an advertisement multiple times, this measure is often greater than 100.DefinitionGross Rating Points (GRPs) represent the sum of Rating Points over several media vehiclesGross Rating Points (%) = Impressions (#) / Total Population (#)DefinitionTarget Rating Points (TRPs)replace the total population with a specific group
4 Cost Per Impression and CPM To measure the cost efficiency of campaigns, advertisers monitor the cost per impression. Given this is likely to be an impractically small number (fraction of a cent) CPM is more often quoted.DefinitionCPM is just the Cost per Thousand ImpressionsCPM ($) = Cost of Advertising / Impressions Generated (in 000s)Example:20,000 impressions generated for $400 have a CPM of $20.
5 Reach and Frequency Definition Reach and Frequency If impressions are the basic unit of measurement in advertising, a company might also be interested in how those impressions are distributed across a target population. The company might want to know how many different people are actually being exposed to their advertisement (known as “reach”). They also might be interested in knowing how often (on average) someone sees their advertisement (known as “frequency”).By definition then, Impressions are the product of the number of people (Reach) & how many times they see it (Frequency)DefinitionTotal Impressions (#) = Frequency (#) * Reach (#)
6 Reach of an advertising campaign DefinitionReach: number of people who have been exposed to the advertisementReach of Advert AReach of Advert BCaution: Only count onceReach of an advertising campaignAKA Net Reach: The qualifier “net” is often used to emphasize that individuals are not double counted when calculating reach.A Venn Diagram is often the best way to illustrate ReachDefinitionEffective reach is registered only after a threshold(effective frequency -- often 3) has been achievedEffective Reach (#) =People exposed at or above a given Effective Frequency (#) level
7 Frequency Definition Definition Frequency Average Frequency is the average number of times each person who has been reached has an opportunity to see the advertisement.Frequency (#) = Total Impressions (#) / Reached Individuals (#)DefinitionEffective Frequency is the number of times a personneeds to be exposed to an ad for it to be counted as“effective”.
8 Frequency Response Functions These are three common assumptions about responses to advertising:Linear:steady progress2) Threshold:complete effect at certain point3) Learning - S – Curve: accelerating followed by deceleratingmarginal effectiveness
9 Share of Voice Definition Definition A company might want to compare the impact of their advertising with their competition. Share of voice is one measurement used to measure this relative difference. It does not, however, capture the overall effectiveness of the advertising campaign.DefinitionShare of Voice =Company Advertising Spending / Total Advertising Spending in the MarketConceptually it may be better to use impressions to measure share of voice to take out the impact of potential cost differences to the advertiser.DefinitionShare of Voice = Company Impressions / Total Impressions in the Market