President Lincoln’s Plan 10% Plan * Pardon to all but the highest ranking military and civilian Confederate officers. * southern states could be readmitted into the Union once 10 percent of its voters (from the election of 1860) swore an oath of allegiance to the Union.
13 th Amendment Ratified in December, 1865. Outlaws slavery forever in the United States
Freedmen’s Bureau (1865) Designed to help freedmen (former slaves). Distribute food and supplies, establish schools, and redistribute additional confiscated land to former slaves White and black Republicans came to the South to run the Freedmen’s Bureau (carpetbaggers)
Freedmen’s Bureau Seen Through Southern Eyes Plenty to eat and nothing to do.
President Andrew Johnson Became President after Lincoln’s death. Wanted to make it easy for Southern states to rejoin the Union.
President Johnson’s Plan (10%+) Offered amnesty upon simple oath to all except… Confederate civil and military officers and those with property over $20,000. Appointed governors in Confederate states.
Growing Northern Alarm! Johnson’s plan was unpopular with some Northerners because it didn’t punish the South. Johnson wasn’t well liked by Congressional Republicans because he had owned slaves in the past.
Black Codes Laws passed to keep former slaves from being successful Purpose: * Keep blacks poor and dependent on whites. Forced many blacks to become sharecroppers [tenant farmers]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QtXSuC0NImA
Congress Breaks with the President February, 1866 President vetoed the Freedmen’s Bureau bill. March, 1866 Johnson vetoed the 1866 Civil Rights Act. Civil Rights Act of 1866 protected the rights of blacks. Congress passed both bills over Johnson’s vetoes 1 st in U. S. history!!
14 th Amendment Ratified in July, 1868. * Provides citizenship to former slaves. * Extends rights to former slaves Southern states would be punished for denying the rights to black citizens!
Radical Plan for Readmission Military would oversee Reconstruction. Required new state constitutions, including black suffrage and ratification of the 13 th and 14 th Amendments.
Reconstruction Acts of 1867 Military Reconstruction Act * Restart Reconstruction in the 10 Southern states that refused to ratify the 14 th Amendment. * Divide the 10 “unreconstructed states” into 5 military districts.
President Johnson’s Impeachment The House impeached Johnson by a vote of 126 – 47!
The Senate Trial Johnson acquitted (not guilty) 35 to 19 (one short of required 2/3s vote).
15 th Amendment Ratified in 1870. Grants the right to vote to former slaves (males only) over 21. Women’s rights groups were furious that they were not granted the vote!