3 Anticipatory setDifferences in pressure, heat, air movement, and humidity result in changes of weather.
4 standardsS 6.4.a – Students know the sun is the major source of energy for phenomena on Earth’s surface; it powers winds, ocean currents, and the water cycle S 6.4.e – Students know differences in pressure, heat, air movement, and humidity result in change in weather
5 The big idea The main factors that influence temperature are: Latitude AltitudeDistance from larger bodies of waterOcean currents
6 Key termsClimate – the average long-term conditions of temperature, precipitations, winds, and clouds in an areaMicroclimate – climate conditions within a small area that differ from those in the surrounding areaMarine climate – the climate of some coastal regions, with relatively warm winters and cool summersContinental climate – the climate of the centers of continents, with cold winters and warm or hot summers
7 Key termsOcean current – a large stream of moving water that flows through the ocean in a regular patternWindward – the side of a mountain range that faces the oncoming windLeeward – he side of a mountain range that faces away from the oncoming windMonsoon – sea or land breeze over a large region that changes direction with the seasons
8 Scientists use two main factors to determine climate: What causes climate?Scientists use two main factors to determine climate:Precipitationtemperature
9 Factors affecting temperature Main factors that influence temperature are:LatitudeAltitudeDistance from large bodies of waterOcean currents
10 latitudeReview World Temperature Zones for the effects of latitude on temperature
11 altitudeIn the case of high mountains, altitude is a more important climate factor than latitudeAs a result, highland areas everywhere have cool climates, no matter what their latitude
12 Distance from large bodies of water Oceans or large lakes can affect temperatureOceans make the temperatures of nearby land less extreme (than they would be without the ocean)Water heats up more slowly than landWater cools down more slowly than landWinds off the ocean often prevent extremes of hot and cold in coastal regions
13 Ocean currents Marine climate are often influenced by ocean currents Some warm surface currents move heat from the tropics toward the polesAffects climate as the warm ocean water warms the air above itThe best warm water current is the Gulf StreamView the Gulf Stream currents on page 349 of your textbook
14 Factors affecting temperature Read Factors Affecting Temperature on pages 347 – 349 of your textbook
15 Factors affecting precipitation The main factors that affect precipitation are:Prevailing windsThe presence of mountainsSeasonal winds
16 Weather patterns depend on the movement of huge air masses Prevailing windsWeather patterns depend on the movement of huge air massesThese air masses are move from place to place by prevailing windsThe directional winds that usually blow in a region
17 Prevailing winds Air masses can be warm or cool, dry or humid The amount of water vapor in the air mass influences how much rain or snow will fallThe amount of water vapor in the prevailing wind also depends on where the winds come fromWinds that blow inland from oceans or large lakes carry more water vapor than winds that blow from over land
18 Mountain rangesA mountain range in the path of prevailing winds can also influence where precipitation fallsWhen humid winds blow from the ocean to the coastal mountains, they are forced to riseAs they rise the air cools and its vapor condenses, forming clouds
19 View Figure 4 on pages 350 – 351 of your textbook Mountain rangesThe Sierra Nevada mountains have a major effect on California’s climateExtremely dry areas (such as Death Valley) are located on the leeward side of the mountainsView Figure 4 on pages 350 – 351 of your textbook
20 Seasonal windsA seasonal change in wind patterns can affect precipitationSea and land breezes over a large region that change direction with the seasons are called monsoonsThailand and parts of India receive much of their rain from the summer monsoonsMonsoon winds also bring rain to coast areas in West Africa and northeastern South America
21 Regions affected by monsoons receive very little rain in winter Seasonal windsRegions affected by monsoons receive very little rain in winterIn the winter, the land cools and becomes colder than the oceanA “land breeze” blows from the land to the ocean, which carries little moisture
22 Seasonal windsThe Santa Ana winds are hot, dry winds that often blow in Southern California during fall and early winterCool air from the desert blows toward the coastAs air flows down the mountain, it is compressed and warms upThe humidity of the air drops and vegetation dries out, creating a potential fire hazard
23 Factors affecting precipitation Read Factors Affecting Precipitation on pages 350 – 351 of your textbook
24 The seasonsThe seasons are caused by the tilt of Earth’s axis as Earth travels around the sun
25 View Figure 7 on page 353 of your textbook Tilted axisThe axis is an imaginary line through Earth’s center that passes through both polesThe axis ALWAYS points in the same directionThe north end of the axis is pointed away from the sun for part of the year, and toward the sun for another part of the yearView Figure 7 on page 353 of your textbook
26 Effect of the tilted axis In June the northern hemisphere receives radiation (heat) from the sun at a more direct angleIn December, the north end of Earth’s axis is tiled away from the sun
28 Check for understanding Define climate. What are the factors that affect temperature?
29 Check for understanding Define climate. Cimate refers to the long-term, average conditions of temperature, precipitation, winds, and clouds in an area. What are the factors that affect temperature? The facts that affect temperature are latitude, altitude, distance from large bodies of water, and ocean currents.
30 Modeling / guided / independent Complete the Modeling, Guided Practice, and Independent Practice Sections of your Climate 9-1 Worksheet.