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Climates of the Earth Chapter 3.

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Presentation on theme: "Climates of the Earth Chapter 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 Climates of the Earth Chapter 3

2 Earth-Sun Relationship
Section 1

3 Climate v. Weather Climate Weather
Term for weather patterns that an area typically experiences over time Condition of the atmosphere in one place during a limited period of time.

4 Earth Tilt and Rotation
Earth also rotates on an axis 1 rotation ever 24 hours Rotates West to East, turns one hemisphere then the other toward the sun, alternating them between the light of day and the dark of night. Axis- imaginary line running from the north pole to the south through the planets center Because of the tilt, not all places on the earth receive the same amount of direct sun light at the same time. The tilt affects the temperature How hot or cold a place is. Measured in degrees on a set scale More sunlight= higher temps Less Sunlight = Colder temps


6 Revolution The earth takes 1 revolution, or trip around the sun, every 365 days Revolution + Tilt = changes in angle and the amount of sun that reaches places of the Earth Seasons Seasons are reversed North and South of the Equator Equinox- day where daylight and nighttime hours are equal. Around March 21st

7 Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn
Tropic of Cancer- Northern most point of the earth When the sun directly hits the Tropic of Cancer the north experiences its longest days of the summer = Summer Solstice Tropic of Capricorn- Southern most point When the sun is directly on the Tropic of Capricorn it marks the shortest days in the North = Winter Solstice

8 The Poles The most dramatic variation of the amounts of sunlight happen at the poles The pole angled toward the sun receives constant sunlight while the pole angled away receives little to no sunlight North Pole- March 20- September 23rd is constant day light, while the south has none South Pole-September23-March 20th Constant day light, while the north has none

9 Greenhouse Effects Only part of the sun’s radiation passes through the earth’s atmosphere while the rest is reflected back into space The radiation that makes it through warms the earth and water. The earth acts like a greenhouse because it traps some of the sun’s energy from escaping the earth to quickly this helps w/ growing plants, even in cold weather. With out this earth would be too cold for most living things


11 Greenhouse Effect If too much heat escapes, plants will freeze
If too much heat is trapped, plants will wilt and dry out This is similar to how the earth works

12 Global Warming Belief that a rise in global temperatures has occurred due to human activity Examples: burning of coal, oil, and natural gas Fossil fuels release carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, in the atmosphere that traps more heat

13 Factors Affecting Climate
Section 2

14 As latitude ________, the average annual temperature _________.
How does latitude affect climate? As latitude ________, the average annual temperature _________. increases decreases Temperature 0° Latitude °

15 Water __________ the temperature. _______ summers. _______ winters.
How does closeness to a large body of water affect climate? Water __________ the temperature. _______ summers. _______ winters. moderates Cooler Warmer Cities A & B are located at the same latitude. City B is closer to a large body of water. Its temperature line is flatter (moderated).

16 Windward Side: ___________ Leeward Side: _____________
How does the Orographic Effect affect climate? Windward Side: ___________ Leeward Side: _____________ cool, moist warm, dry


18 As elevation _________, the average annual temperature __________.
How does elevation affect climate? As elevation _________, the average annual temperature __________. increases decreases Temperature Elevation

19 Warm Currents: warmer climate Cold Currents: cooler climate
How do ocean currents affect climate? Warm Currents: warmer climate Cold Currents: cooler climate


21 World Climate Patterns
Section 3

22 Tropical Climate: Wet Hot and wet Average temperature of 80 degrees
About 80 in. of rain yearly Nutrient rich soil Abundant wildlife Rain forests, example: Amazon River basin Areas with this climate: South America, Caribbean, Asia, Africa

23 Tropical Climate: Dry Dry winters, wet summers
High year-round temperatures Fewer trees: Savannas Areas with this climate: Africa, Central America, South America, Asia, and Australia Sparse Plants: Deserts

24 Dry Climate Desert: Steppes: Sparse plant life
Rainfall less than 10 inches 1/3 of Earth’s total land Sahara is 1/3 of the African Continent Steppes: Border deserts Treeless grasslands 10 to 20 inches of rain yearly Found in North America, South America, Africa, and Australia

25 Mid-latitude Climate Marine West Coast Mediterranean Humid Subtropical
Cool summers/Cool, damp winters Mediterranean Mild, Rainy winters/hot, sunny summers Humid Subtropical Short, mild winters/year-round rain Humid Continental Warm, hot summers/cold winters

26 High-Latitude Climate
Lack of direct sunlight allows for freezing temperatures throughout the year Limited vegetation Subarctic and Tundra

27 Highland Climate High mountain areas
Higher the elevation, coolers the temps Mixed forests at the base Meadows with higher up

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