Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Phrase Structure The formal means of representing constituency.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Phrase Structure The formal means of representing constituency."— Presentation transcript:

1 Phrase Structure The formal means of representing constituency

2 Constituents are hierarchically organized S NPVP D NVPP the man eats P NP at Adj N fancy restaurants The man eats at fancy restaurants. [ S [ NP [ D the] [ N man]] [ VP [ V eats] [ PP [ P at] [ NP [ Adj fancy] [ N restaurants]]]]]

3 Phrase Structure Rules Rules to represent hierarchical structure eg. S  NP VP S NPVP constituent (sub)constituents

4 Phrase Structure Rules XP  (YP) X (ZP+) the name of the constituent “consists of” elements without parentheses are obligatory elements in parentheses are optional X,Y,Z are variables representing any category (eg N, V,A, P etc) elements inside of constituent IN ORDER from Left to Right + means you can have as many as you need

5 Phrase Structure Rules NP  (D) (AP+) N (PP+) “NP consist of” “an optional determiner” (brackets mean optional) eg. John vs the man “followed by any number of optional Adjective Phrases” (+= any number of) “followed by a noun” “followed by any number of optional Prepositional phrases”

6 Phrase Structure Rules NP  (det) (AP+) N (PP+) NP det AP AP N PP the book A A P NP big yellow of N Poems

7 Noun Phrases (NP) A noun phrase can be just a bare noun: –[ NP John] left (cf. [ NP the man] left) –So all other material other than the Noun itself will be optional. –NP  N

8 Noun Phrases (NP) NPs can have an optional determiners and adjective (phrases). –You are allowed one determiner and as many APs as you like: [slippers] [the slippers] [pink slippers] [the pink slippers] [pink fluffy slippers] [the pink fluffy slippers] *the a slippers NP  (D) (AP+) N

9 Noun Phrases (NP) NP DAP APN the slippers A pink fluffy NP  (D) (AP+) N

10 Noun Phrases (NP) NPs also allow as many optional PPs following the N as you like: The book of poems The book of poems with the red cover The book of poems with the red cover from New York NP  (D) (AP+) N (PP+) Is this rule the final one? Not even close! (For example, it doesn’t have a means of incorporating relative clauses). However, we’ll start with this as a working hypothesis.

11 Adjective/Adverb Phrases (APs) Adjectives & Adverbs can stand on their own as phrases: John left [quickly] the [red] lipstick AP  A But they can also be modified by other APs : John left [rather quickly] the [very red] lipstick AP  (AP) A AP AP A A quickly rather

12 Adjective/Adverb Phrases (APs) A situation easily confused: The big yellow balloon The very yellow balloon –What does “big” modify? What does ‘very’ modify? NP D AP AP N the balloon A A big yellow NP D AP N the balloon AP A A very yellow

13 The Principle of Modification “The Golden Rule” If one constituent modifies another then those two constituents are sisters. (ie. They must be part of the same constituent) AP AP A sisters NP AP N sisters

14 Prepositional Phrases (PPs) These generally consist of a Preposition and an NP: up the road on the video screen under the avocado PP  P NP PP P NP under D N the avocado

15 Prepositional Phrases (PPs) Is the NP in a PP optional? I threw the garbage out The construction workers blew the building up I haven’t seen him before PP  P (NP) This is controversial: not everyone agrees these are prepositions.

16 Verb Phrases (VP) Verbs by themselves: Marko [arrived] Susan [sang] VP  V Verbs can be modified by adverbs: Marko [often sang] Susan [sang beautifully] Luis [often sang beautifully] VP  (AP+) V (AP+)

17 Verb Phrases (VP) Verbs modified by PPs: Marko [sang though a microphone] Susan [sang to her parents] VP  (AP+) V (PP+) (AP+) Verbs with an NP object: Marko [sang a song] VP  (AP+) V (NP) (PP+) (AP+) Verbs with a Sentence Object: Fred said [Marko sang a song] VP  (AP+) V ({NP/S}) (PP+) (AP+)

18 Verb Phrases (VP) VP  (AP+) V ({NP/S}) (PP+) (AP+) VP AP V NP PP PP A got D N P NP P NP frequently his buckets from D N for D N the store a dollar

19 Clauses (Sentences) Sentences consist of a subject (NP) and a predicate (VP). In English, neither is optional (although in other languages the subject may be omitted) S  NP VP S NPVP N VNP Traci ate D N the pizza

20 Clauses (Sentences) Sentences may have an optional auxiliary or modal verb (of the Category T) S  NP (T) VP S NP T VP might N will VNP Traci eat D N the pizza

21 Embedded Clauses Sometimes clauses can function as the subject or object of other clauses. –I asked [if Maria would eat the spaghetti] –I think [that Maria decked the Janitor] –[That Maria decked the Janitor] is obvious Words like “that” and “if” are called complementizers. –S'  (Comp) S

22 Embedded Clauses VP  (AP+) V ({NP/S'}) (PP+) (AP+) S  {NP/S'} (T) VP

23 S NP VP D N V S’ the syntactician think Comp S that T didn’t NP VP D N V NP the phonologist said D N the sentence

24 Recursion Language is infinite: you can say sentences that have never been said before. NP  N PP PP  P NP NP N PP P NP N PP P NP etc!!!! This property is calledRecursion

25 Summary Constituency & hierarchical structure is captured by phrase structure rules (PSRs) These rules also capture the recursive (infinite) property of language.

26 PSRs of English S'  (Comp) S S  {NP/S'} (T) VP VP  (AP+) V ({NP/S'}) (PP+) (AP+) NP  (D) (AP+) N (PP+) PP  P (NP) AP  (AP) A to be significantly revised

Download ppt "Phrase Structure The formal means of representing constituency."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google