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Structure of Complementation

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1 Structure of Complementation
Meeting 6

2 Complement in NP Some Post-head dependents are complements of the head noun rather than modifiers. Complements of N are typically PP or Clause which 'completes' the meaning of the head Noun. My interest in your proposal The professor's study of refugees The lecturer's insistence on punctuality His assertion that linguistics is fun Their claim that linguistics is hard

3 Contrast between PP modifiers and PP complements
Closer semantic and syntactic relationship between PP complement and head Which small boy? The small boy with the large dog The small boy in the garden The small boy on the fence *Which reliance? Reliance on what/who? Reliance on your ability/ on your uncle

4 Contrast between PP modifiers and PP complements
PP modifier may be headed by any preposition Which small boy? The small boy with the large dog The small boy in the garden The small boy on the fence PP complement has restricted P (depending on head N) Interest in what? Interest in your proposal *Interest with/by/on your proposal

5 VERB NOUN insists on NP insistence on NP relies on NP reliance on NP worries about NP worry about NP interests oneself in NP interest in NP studies NP student of NP / study of NP dislikes NP dislike of NP loves NP love of NP/ lover of NP Relationship between PP complement of N reflects relationship between corresponding verb and its complement.

6 Only one complement; multiple modifiers
The small boy [in the garden] [with his pet dog] The small boy [with his pet dog] [in the garden] *The student [of physics] [of theology]. Complement precedes modifier The student [of physics] [with his pet dog] *The student [with his pet dog] [of physics]

7 Functions in Adjective Phrase (AdjP)
Head Dependents: Prehead Modifier (PrHdMod) Posthead Complement (Comp) AdjP PrHdMod:AdvP Head:Adj Comp:PP so very improbably keen on that movie crazy about that movie

8 Functions in the Adverb Phrase (AdvP)
head: Adv dependents: prehead modifier: AdvP posthead complement: PP / clause more carefully than Jo so very quickly that he fell over quickly *than Jo/ that he fell over PrHdMod: Head: Comp: AdvP Adv PP/Clause

9 Functions in the Preposition Phrase PP
head: P Prehead modifier: AdvP Posthead complement: NP/PP PP PrHdMod:AdvP Head:P Comp:NP straight though the intersection almost right into the crowd barely in the water

10 Summarizing functions of constituents of phrases:
head dependents Types of dependents: prehead determiner (in NP only) modifer posthead modifier complement

11 Functions in the Verb Phrase (VP)
Head: V Dependents: Pre-head modifier: AdvP Post-head modifier: AdvP/PP (Post-head) complement: NP/PP/AdvP/clause

12 S Subject:NP Tense:AUX Predicate:VP head:V PtHdMod:AdvP The boy has run very quickly S Subject:NP Tense:AUX Predicate:VP PrHdMod:AdvP V The boy has very quickly run

13 Types of Complement in the VP
Direct Object: NP Indirect Object: NP Prepositional Phrase Complement (PPC): PP Subject Predicative Complement (PCS): NP/AdjP Object Predicative Complement (PCO): NP/AdjP Post-head modifiers in VP are often referred to as adjuncts

14 Direct Object (DO) Function in VP
The direct object function is filled by NP The dogs chased the cats. If the direct object is a pronoun, the pronoun is in Accusative case form. The dogs chased them. (*they) In basic sentences, the direct object NP comes immediately after the verb *The dogs chased [quickly] them. Exception: if there is also an indirect object NP The boy bought [the girl] an icecream.

15 Unlike PP complements in NPs and AdjPs the direct object (DO) NP is usually obligatory in English
The boy discovered the treasure. The boy discovered it. *The boy discovered. The discovery of the treasure The discovery

16 Indirect Object (IO) function in VP
Indirect object (IO) function is only filled by NP IO follows V and precedes DO I gave my brother [a new bicycle]. The IO pronoun is Accusative (or Reflexive) Accusative IO I baked him a cake Reflexive IO I baked myself a cake

17 Preposition Phrase Complement in VP (PPC)
a PP may fill a complement function in a VP It may be the only complement John relies on his friend. It may follow an NP (DO) complement John put [the book] on the table. As with PP complements in an NP or AdjP, the choice of preposition is restricted by the verb. relies on/*in/*from; believes in/*on/*about

18 Subjective Predicative Complement (PCS)
PCS is filled by NP or by AdjP PCS comes directly after the verb The PCS describes an attribute or property of the referent of the subject NP Compare: The man saw a doctor. (DO) The man became a doctor. (PCS) *The man saw very clever. (DO) The man became very clever. (PCS)

19 Another property of PCS
If the PCS is a NP, it normally agrees with the subject NP The gentleman is a lawyer. The gentlemen are lawyers. *The gentleman is lawyers. *The gentlemen are a lawyer. Only a limited set of verbs take an NP as PCS: be, become, seem, look, resemble...

20 Tests to distinguish PCS from DO
Test 1 - Substitution Marjorie looked a fright. PCS can be NP or AdjP. DO can only be NP. Can you replace the NP with an AdjP? Marjorie looked frightful /angry /very sad. Therefore - PCS.

21 Tests to distinguish PCS from DO
Test 2 - Agreement The doctor seems a nice man. PCS must agree with the subject. DO does not agree with the subject The doctor saw a nice man/nice men. Can you make the NP plural? *The doctor seems nice men. Therefore - PCS.

22 Objective Predicative Complement (PCO)
Similar to PCS in many respects, but a PCO describes an attribute of the DO of a sentence. We consider him our leader. Subj Verb DO PCO The PCO function is filled by NP or AdjP. We consider him very trustworthy. An NP in the PCO function agrees in number with the DO phrase. We consider them our leaders.

23 Distinguish PCO construction from IO construction
VP  V NP NP We consider him our leader. (DO PCO) We gave him our leader. (IO DO) Substitute AdjP for NP if PCO We consider him very stong. Cannot substitute AdjP for NP if DO *We gave him very strong.

24 Distinguish PCO construction from IO construction
VP  V NP NP We consider him our leader. (DO PCO) We gave him our leader. (IO DO) DO NP and PCO NP agree in number We consider him our leader. (singular) We consider them our leaders. (plural) No number agreement between IO and DO We gave him our leader/leaders. We gave them our leader/leaders.

25 Adjuncts Post-head dependents which are not complements in a VP are adjuncts Adjuncts are never obligatory Adjuncts modify some aspect of the possible reference of the VP Different types of phrases can act as an adjunct in a VP (XP is an abbreviation for an unspecified type of phrase) Adjuncts can be fronted to pre-Subject

26 Sue slept very badly in the plane on Tuesday after the meeting
I left very quickly. (AdvP) I left. Very quickly I left. I saw John on Tuesday. (PP) I saw John. On Tuesday I saw John. Mary left the following day. (NP) Mary left. The following day Mary left. Multiple adjuncts Sue slept very badly in the plane on Tuesday after the meeting

27 Complements cannot be omitted (except in special cases)
I behave very badly. (COMP:AdvP) *I behave ___. (incomplete - opposite meaning) I put John on the ground. (COMP:PP) *I put John ___. Mary left her bag. (COMP:NP) *Mary left ____. Santa depends on Rudolph. (COMP:PP) *Santa depends ___.

28 Complements precede adjuncts
John read [the book] carefully/in the lounge *John read carefully/in the lounge [the book]. Exception: 'Heavy' DO NP may follow an adjunct phrase John examined (very) carefully [every single document in the safe].

29 Summary Every phrase has a head A phrase may have dependents
Dependents may precede or follow the head Dependents with a close semantic and syntactic relationship with the head are complements In some phrases (e.g., VP) complements may be obligatory Dependents which are freely added to a phrase to modify the head are adjuncts


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