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Another look at PSRs: Intermediate Structure Starting X-bar theory

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Flat Structure NP (D) (AP+) N (PP+) the blue cover NP D AP N PP PP the book A P NP P NP big of with N poems

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Flat Structure I bought the big [book of poems] with the red cover not the small [one] with the blue cover. the blue cover NP D AP N PP PP the book A P NP P NP big of with N poems

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Flat Structure I bought the big [book of poems with the blue cover] not the small [one]. the blue cover NP D AP N PP PP the book A P NP P NP big of with N poems

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Flat Structure I bought this [big book of poems with the red cover] not that [one]. the blue cover NP D AP N PP PP this book A P NP P NP big of with N poems

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N’ Structure NP D the N’ N PP book of poems with the blue cover PP N’ AP big N’

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N’ rules NP (D) N’ N’ (AP) N’ or N’ (PP) N’ N (PP) An iterative (self-recursive) rule: can apply as many times as needed

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One-Replacement Replace an N’ node with [one] not N, not NP

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One replacement NP D that N’ N PP book of poems with the blue cover PP N’ AP big N’ I want that big book of poems with the blue cover not... This [one] The small [one] the small [one] with the red cover *[one]. *the small [one] of essays with the blue cover

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Flat Structure in VPs VP (AP+) V (NP) (AP+) (PP+) VP AP V NP AP PP sings A N A P NP often opera loudly at N church

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John often sings opera loudly at church and Mary [does so too]. VP AP V NP AP PP sings A N A P NP often opera loudly at N church

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John often sings opera loudly at church and Mary frequently [does so too]. A N A P NP VP AP V NP AP PP sings often opera loudly at N church

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John often sings opera loudly at church but Mary rarely [does so] in the library. VP AP V NP AP PP sings A N A P NP often opera loudly at N church

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John often sings opera loudly at church but Mary rarely [does so] quietly in the library. VP AP V NP AP PP sings A N A P NP often opera loudly at N church

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V’ Structure VP V’ APV’ V’ PP V’ AP V NP often sings opera loudly in church this may seem mysterious, but I’ve done it for a reason -- we’ll see in chapter 8

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V’ rules VP V’ (a vacuous rule) V’ (AP) V’ or V’ ({AP/PP}) V’ V (NP) An iterative (self-recursive) rule: can apply as many times as needed

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Do so replacement replace a V’ node with [did so (too)]

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VP V’ APV’ V’ PP V’ AP V NP often sings opera loudly in church John often sings opera loudly in church and/but Mary... *seldom does so folksongs quietly in the library seldom [does so] quietly in the library seldom [does so] in the library seldom [does so] [does so too]

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Further Evidence for V’ VP V’ V’ PP V’ Conj V’ P NP and with V NP eats tosses beans salads a fork

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Flat Structure in APs AP (AP) A –Tara is proud of Colleen –Susan is angry about the president’s politics AP (AP) A (PP)

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Flat Structure in APs AP (AP) A (PP) AP AP A PP angry A P NP very about school violence

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Bob is very angry about school violence but less [so] than he used to be. AP AP A PP angry A P NP very about school violence

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Bob is very angry about school violence but less [so] about gun control. AP AP A PP angry A P NP very about school violence

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A’ rules AP A’ (a vacuous rule) A’ (AP) A’ A’ A (PP) An iterative (self-recursive) rule: can apply as many times as needed

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A’ Structure AP A’ APA’ A PP very afraid of tiger this may seem mysterious, but I’ve done it for a reason -- we’ll see in chapter 8

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Flat Structure in PPs P P (NP) –Tara is very in love with her boss PP (AP) P (NP) (PP) ok, this only shows up with the idiom “in love” and fixed expressions like it… So I’m giving you a hokey story here.

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Flat Structure in PPs PP (AP) P (NP) (PP) PP AP P NP PP in A N P NP very love with her boss

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Mary was very in love with her boss, Susanna was less [so] PP (AP) P (NP) (PP) PP AP P NP PP in A N P NP very love with her boss

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Mary was very in love with her boss, Susanna was less [so] with her husband. PP (AP) P (NP) (PP) PP AP P NP PP in A N P NP very love with her boss

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P’ rules PP P’ (a vacuous rule) P’ (AP) P’ or P’ (PP) P’ P (NP) An iterative (self-recursive) rule: can apply as many times as needed

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P’ Structure PP P’ APV’ V’ PP P NP Very love with her boss this may seem mysterious, but I’ve done it for a reason -- we’ll see in chapter 8 in Ok, I’ll admit it, there is less evidence for this one!!!

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The New Rules (don’t memorize these, we have a ways to go yet) NP (D) N’ N’ (AP) N’ or N’ (PP) N’ N (PP) VP V’ V’ (AP) V’ or V’ ({AP/PP}) V’ V (NP) AP A’ A’ (AP) A’ A’ A (PP) PP P’ P’ (AP) P’ or P’ (PP) P’ P (NP) YIKES! Is there a simpler way? Are we missing any generalizations??

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Generalization 1: 3 types of rules For each major category there are 3 types of rules: A rule that generates the phrase NP (D) N’ A rule that iterates: N’ (AP) N’ A rule that introduces the “head” N’ N (PP) specifier rule adjunct rule complement rule

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Generalization 2: Headedness In each rule the only item that is obligatory is the item that gives its category to the node that dominates it: NP (D) N’ N’ (AP) N’ N’ N (PP) There are no rules of the form NP V AP. (this is called endocentricity)

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Generalization 3: Optionality With the exception of determiners (more on that in chapter 6), all non-head material is both phrasal and optional NP (D) N’ N’ (AP) N’ N’ N (PP)

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Goals of X-bar theory Simplify the system of rules Capture intermediate structure Capture the cross-categorial generalizations. We will use VARIABLES to do this. A variable is a category that can stand for any other category. X, Y, W, Z are variables that can stand for ANY of N,V,A,P

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The X-bar Rules Specifier Rule: XP (YP) X’ Adjunct Rule: X’ (ZP) X’ or X’ X’ (ZP) Complement Rule: X’ X (WP) where X can stand for any category (N,V,A,P). X must be consistent through the 3 rules.

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X-bar Structures XP X’ X’ZP 1 X’ ZP 2 YP X WP

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X-bar Structures NP N’ N’ZP 1 N’ ZP 2 YP N WP

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X-bar Structures VP V’ V’ZP 1 V’ ZP 2 YP V WP

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X-bar Structures AP A’ A’ZP 1 A’ ZP 2 YP A WP

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X-bar Structures PP P’ P’ZP 1 P’ ZP 2 YP P WP

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Summary Constituency tests show us there is intermediate structure in phrases. (evidence varies in strength) There are Cross-Categorial generalizations to be made: 3 rules: Specifier, adjunct, complement Headedness & Endocentricity Optionality of modifiers

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Summary X-bar rules: –Specifier Rule: XP (YP) X’ –Adjunct Rule: X’ (ZP) X’ or X’ X’ (ZP) –Complement Rule: X’ X (WP) To do: –discuss the differences between the specifier/complement/adjunct rules –Account for crosslinguistic variation –tidy up some ugly loose ends (like the lack of motivation for the specifier rule, The fact that determiners aren’t phrases etc.)

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