Presentation on theme: "Dr. Abdullah S. Al-Dobaian1 Ch. 2: Phrase Structure Syntactic Structure (basic concepts) Syntactic Structure (basic concepts) A tree diagram marks constituents."— Presentation transcript:
Dr. Abdullah S. Al-Dobaian1 Ch. 2: Phrase Structure Syntactic Structure (basic concepts) Syntactic Structure (basic concepts) A tree diagram marks constituents hierarchically S NP AUX VP NP AUX VP Ali will V NP Ali will V NP help D N help D N the man the man A node is any point in the tree diagram and it can be: Branching node like S and lower NP. Non-branching node like AUX and V. Terminal nodes: lexical items at end of tree like help Nodes are related to each other by two relations:
Dr. Abdullah S. Al-Dobaian2 1. Dominance: A node X dominates node Y if: X is higher than Y and X is connected to Y by a branch. For example, NP dominates Ali, VP dominates D and NP. Immediate dominance: A node immediately dominates another if there’s no intervening node. e.g. S immediately dominates NP, AUX, VP but not help. 2. Precedence: A node X precedes Y if it is on the left and both aren’t dominating each other. e.g. Ali precedes will, but the doesn’t precede man.
Dr. Abdullah S. Al-Dobaian3 Phrase Structure Rules Phrase Structure Rules These rules derive different types of phrases and unlimited number of sentences: NP (D) (AdjP) N This rule cannot predict the structure of the phrase and we need to memorize infinite number of rules. The Structure of Phrases The Structure of Phrases 1. VP: It consists of - lexical category: head V - Phrasal category or maximal projection: VP as a whole -Intermediate category: V’ (part of VP)
Dr. Abdullah S. Al-Dobaian4 V’ V’ V’ is a level that contains the object and verb’s modifiers: The head verb (and its object if there is one) is in the lowest V’ level The verb’s modifiers are placed in higher V’ levels, called adjunct Subject combines with highest V’ level, i.e. specifier of VP For example: they eat lunch in school tonight VP spec V’ spec V’ they V’ NP they V’ NP V’ PP tonight V’ PP tonight V NP in school V NP in school eat lunch eat lunch
Dr. Abdullah S. Al-Dobaian5 Evidence for V’ Evidence for V’ V’ is a constituent structure that can be replaced by do so: - They eat lunch in school tonight and Ali does so. (eat lunch in school tonight) - They eat lunch in school tonight and Ali did so this morning. (eat lunch in school) - They eat lunch in school tonight and Ali does so at work this morning. (eat lunch) adjuncts are recursive, i.e. repeatedly added. 2. NP N’ is a level that contains the object and noun’s modifiers: The head noun (and its object if there is one) is in the lowest N’ level The noun’s modifiers are placed in higher N’ levels, called adjunct The determiner combines with the highest N’, i.e. specifier of VP For example, the big book of poems with the blue cover
Dr. Abdullah S. Al-Dobaian6 NP NP Det N’ 1 Det N’ 1 the N’2 the N’2 AP N’3 PP AP N’3 PP big N PP with blue cover big N PP with blue cover book of poems book of poems Evidence for N’ Evidence for N’ N’ is a constituent structure that can be replaced by one: - I want this [big book of poems with the blue cover] not that one (N’1) - I want this big [book of poems with the blue cover] not that small one (N’2) - I want this big [book of poems] with the blue cover not that small one with the red cover (N’3) 3. AdjP & PP We apply the same structure to these phrases:
Dr. Abdullah S. Al-Dobaian7 He is [quite jealous of Ali]. He stood [right across the bridge] The lowest P’ and adj’ includes these heads (and their complements). The spec combines with P’ and adj’ and is placed by modifiers (like quite, very, rather, so …for the adj and straight, right for the prep). General structure (x-bar) General structure (x-bar) We can have these general rules that exactly predict the structure of different types of phrases: XP spec X’ (specifier) X’ X YP (head and complement) X’ X’ YP (adjunct= modifier)
Dr. Abdullah S. Al-Dobaian8 Sentence structure Sentence structure Aux is the head of the sentence because it carries tense and agreement: They are working hard. But what about non-auxiliary verbs: They worked hard Aux is the head even though it isn’t overt. Evidence for aux as head of sentence: 1. Cleft sentence: work hard, they did indeed. The tense is on aux and not part of VP.
Dr. Abdullah S. Al-Dobaian9 2. Pseudo-cleft: what they did was work hard. Tense is part of a node, Infl(ection), which can be filled with overt aux or left empty. s NP I VP NP I VP +tense +tense +agr +agr I is finite because it has (+t, +agr). Infinitive clause: I ask [Ali to work hard] To is the head of the infin clause and it’s -t, -agr, non-finite I
Dr. Abdullah S. Al-Dobaian10 The structure of IP IP NPI’ NPI’ I VP I VP will V’ will V’ -ed V NP -ed V NP to finish the work to finish the work IP spec I’ I’ I VP VP is always a complement of I.
Dr. Abdullah S. Al-Dobaian11 IP is a functional category, not a lexical category, because it is used for grammatical function: t, agr Complementizer phrase (CP) Complementizer phrase (CP) CP is another functional category since its head, c, introduces a subordinate clause: C= that, for [-wh] if, whether [+wh] if, whether [+wh] I believe [that Ali will work hard]. I want [for Ali to work hard]. I wonder [if/whether Ali worked hard].
Dr. Abdullah S. Al-Dobaian12 The above CP clauses have the following structure: CP spec C’ spec C’ C IP C IP Ali will worked hard Ali will worked hard - IP is always the complement of C. - C is filled by that, for and moved will, forming yes/no question: CP CP spec C’ spec C’ C IP C IP will NP I’ will NP I’ [+wh] Ali I VP [+wh] Ali I VP work hard work hard
Dr. Abdullah S. Al-Dobaian13 - C can be filled by either will or that, not both - Spec is filled by whether, if and wh-questions: CP CP spec C’ spec C’ when C IP when C IP will NP I’ will NP I’ Ali I VP Ali I VP work hard work hard Structure of CP: CP Spec C’ C’ C IP