2007/08 Christel Kemke Sentence Level Constructs I declarative “ This flight leaves at 9 am. ” S → NP VP imperative “ Book this flight for me. ” S → VP
2007/08 Christel Kemke Sentence Level Constructs II yes-no-question “ Does this flight leave at 9 am? ” S → Aux NP VP wh-question “ When does this flight leave Winnipeg? ” S → Wh-NP Aux NP VP
2007/08 Christel Kemke Noun Phrase Modification 1 Noun Phrase Modifiers head = the central noun of the NP modifiers = additions to head noun included in NP modifiers before the head noun (prenominal) modifiers after the head noun (post-nominal) examples: determiners, adjectives, PPs e.g. the young man the girl with the red hat
2007/08 Christel Kemke Noun Phrase Modification - Prenominal determiner the, a, this, some,... predeterminer all the flights cardinal numbers, ordinal numbers one flight, the first flight,... quantifiers much, little
2007/08 Christel Kemke Noun Phrase Modification - Prenominal adjectives a first-class flight, a long flight adjective phrase the least expensive flight Grammar Rule NP → (Det) (Card) (Ord) (Quant) (AP) Nominal
2007/08 Christel Kemke Noun Phrase Modification - Postnominal prepositional phrase PP all flights from Chicago Nominal → Nominal PP (PP) (PP) non-finite clause, gerundive postmodifers all flights arriving after 7 pm Nominal → GerundVP GerundVP → GerundV NP | GerundV PP |... relative clause a flight that serves breakfast Nominal → Nominal RelClause RelClause → (who | that) VP
2007/08 Christel Kemke Verb Subcategorization Different verbs accept or need different constituents or complements. VP = Verb + other constituents (complements) e.g.He buys the books. Verbs can be classified according to the complements they accept or need. e.g.giveneeds two complements He gave her the books. sleepaccepts no complement He sleeps.
2007/08 Christel Kemke Verb Complements sentential complement VP Verb inf-sentence I want to fly from Boston to Chicago. NP complement VP Verb NP I want this flight. no complement VP Verb I sleep.
2007/08 Christel Kemke Other Verb Complements Prepositional Phrases + other Modifiers can be added to specify location or time of action, state or event described by verb VP Verb PP PP I fly from Boston to Chicago. VP Verb PP I sleep in the barn. VP Verb PP ADV I sleep in the barn tonight.