Mgt2700: Theory continued Science, Scientific Method, and Truth and Truth.
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Mgt2700: Theory continued Science, Scientific Method, and Truth and Truth
Nature of truth knowledge is socially constructed
Sources of Knowledge Experience –but may not be systematic –may not be universal Authority –custom –tradition –but how does authority know?
Sources of Knowledge Deductive Reasoning –from general to the specific
Advantages of Deductive Reasoning can organize what is already known –means of linking theory & observation deductions from theory can provide hypothesis to determine what phenomenon to observe
Problems with Deductive Reasoning must begin with true premises to arrive at true conclusions –premises need not relate to real world (e.g., mathematical models) –can argue reasonably how many angels can stand on head of a pin
Problems with Deductive Reasoning it is hard to establish universal truth of many statements dealing with scientific phenomenon
SOURCES OF KNOWLEDGE ExperienceAuthority Deductive Reasoning –from general to the specific Inductive Reasoning –from specific to general –need to observe phenomenon directly
Inductive Reasoning perfect induction –when dealing with small enough sample, can observe every case, so infallible conclusions imperfect induction –when dealing with larger groups, extrapolate from sample, so may be open to error
SOURCES OF KNOWLEDGE ExperienceAuthority Deductive Reasoning Inductive Reasoning
THEORY is a system for explaining a set of phenomena by specifying constructs and the laws that relate these constructs to each other. is a system for explaining a set of phenomena by specifying constructs and the laws that relate these constructs to each other.
The ultimate goal of science is theory formation Theories knit together the results of observations, enabling scientists to make general statements about variables and the relationships among variables
Purpose of Theories to summarize and organize existing knowledge
Purpose of Theories to explain observed events and relationships
Purpose of Theories to predict the occurrence of unobserved events and relationships
Purpose of Theories to stimulate further inquiry –identifying areas –providing leads
Is the research hypothesis... sufficiently specific? clearly stated?
Inspect for deliberate bias / distortion when investigator has vested interest in results supporting a particular viewpoint highly emotional issues are involved states "this study was conducted to prove” number of cases upon which percentages are based is either not indicated or is low
Inspect for deliberate bias / distortion when figures are calculated to several decimal places surprising or newsworthy findings reward the researcher with career-making publicity objective findings are distorted by mass media to make them "more newsworthy" only a few key studies are cited
Developing the Research Proposal Introduction & research problem statement – Literature review – Identify problems – State significance of problems – Research ideas –Contribution to knowledge and practice Formulating hypothesis Selecting possible measures Selecting research sources Specifying research design Selecting analysis procedures Specifying research activities