Presentation on theme: "Virginia Standard of Learning BIO.1a-m"— Presentation transcript:
1 Virginia Standard of Learning BIO.1a-m The Scientific MethodVirginia Standard of Learning BIO.1a-m
2 BIO SOL: 1 a-mThe student will plan and conduct investigations in which:observations of living organisms are recorded in the lab and in the field;hypotheses are formulated based on direct observations and information from scientific literature;variables are defined and investigations are designed to test hypotheses;graphing and arithmetic calculations are used as tools in data analysis;conclusions are formed based on recorded quantitative and qualitative data;sources of error inherent in experimental design are identified and discussed;
3 BIO SOL: 1 a-mThe student will plan and conduct investigations in which:validity of data is determined;chemicals and equipment are used in a safe manner;appropriate technology including computers, graphing calculators, and probeware, is used for gathering and analyzing data and communicating results;research utilizes scientific literature;differentiation is made between a scientific hypothesis and theory;alternative scientific explanations and models are recognized and analyzed; anda scientific viewpoint is constructed and defended (the nature of science).
4 The Scientific Method Scientific Knowledge is Testable Scientific Knowledge is reversibleScientific Knowledge is explanatoryScientific Knowledge isinterpreted from empirical evidence
5 Scientific Knowledge is Generative It breeds new questions It has no real end point
6 1. State the ProblemForm a question about a specific event or reaction
7 2. Collect Information Research the problem Gather background information
8 3. Form a hypothesisMake an educated prediction based on your research. You need to have a reason for your prediction.A hypothesis can be recognized by an “if, then” statement with “because”
9 Null HypothesisA null hypothesis states there is no relationship between the measured conditionsYou may accept or reject the null hypothesis
10 4. Design an Experiment Devise a way to test your hypothesis. Create a CONTROLLEDexperiment.
11 ONLY 1 condition is changed! A controlled experiment MUST have 2 groups.CONTROL GROUP: all conditions remain the sameEXPERIMENTAL GROUP: only the condition that you are testing for is changedONLY 1 condition is changed!
12 Establish the variables for your experiment. INDEPENDENT VARIABLE: the variable that is changed, manipulated (X axis for graphing)DEPENDENT VARIABLE: the change caused by the manipulation of the independent variable (Y axis for graphing)
13 Give an ExampleINDEPENDENT VARIABLE:DEPENDENT VARIABLE:
14 5. Collect & Analyze Data Using metric Significant figure Statistical annalysis
15 2 Types of DataQUANTITATIVE: numerical data, deals with specific quantities, usually in the form of a graph or chartQUALITATIVE: descriptive data, describes how something looks, smells, sounds, or feels; deals with qualities
17 6. Draw ConclusionsDetermine from the data collected if the hypothesis was supported or was not supportedCan you accept the null and reject your hypothesisCan you reject the null and reject your hypothesis
18 Progression of Ideas in Science Hypothesis- a possible explanation to a question based on information the scientist has already gathered- If experiments show a hypothesis to be correct, other scientists may accept it as support for a scientific theory.EX: Plants obtain their energy from the sun.
19 Progression of Ideas in Science Scientific Theory- a general statement of why things work based on hypotheses that have been tested many times
20 Progression of Ideas in Science - Theories are used to explain & predict the outcome of other experiments- Theories must be tested- Sometimes they are wrong & must be modified or discardedEX: The Earth is flat.
21 Progression of Ideas in Science Scientific Law- a statement of what happens in a certain event based on verified observations & experiments
22 Progression of Ideas in Science - Explains what happens & not why- Summaries of the results of many, many experiments & observations- When results of a series of experiments are the same each time they no longer need to be testedEX: Newton’s Law of Gravity
23 Progression of Ideas in Science Which one is most likely to be wrong- hypothesis, theory, or law?1.2.3.HypothesisTheoryLaw
24 Scientific Method Vocabulary Observation- the act of observing (touch, taste, smell, feel, see, etc.)Inference- a quick conclusion that attempts to explain an observationPrediction- to forecast; to guess the outcome of a situation beforehandAnalysis- to separate or break apart into smaller sections for study
25 Scientific Method Vocabulary Conclusion- to close or bring to an end; to accept or reject a hypothesis in an experimentData- recorded observations or measurementsHypothesis- a tentative explanation that accounts for a set of facts & that can be tested by further investigation
26 Scientific Method Vocabulary Theory- an explanation of a large body of information, experimental and inferential, and serves as an overarching framework for numerous concepts. It is subject to change as new evidence becomes available.Law- a basic scientific theory that is no longer tested & is generally accepted as true (Newton’s Law of Gravity)
27 Scientific Method Vocabulary Controlled Experiment- an experiment in which all variables except the ONE being tested are identical in order to make the experiment fair & the results reliableVariable- any factor in an experiment that could affect the results & is therefore tested separately
28 Scientific Method Vocabulary Controlled Variable- a variable that is not changedIndependent Variable – a variable that you purposely manipulate (manipulated variable)Dependent Variable- the variable being observed that changes in response to the independent variable (responding variable)
29 Scientific Method Vocabulary Quantitative Data- data that involves numbers or measurement usually in the form of a chart or graphQualitative Data- anecdotal or descriptive data that does NOT involve numbers or measurement